Lesson 1 Key Terms

saphire16's version from 2017-08-16 23:11

Key terms

Question Answer
CoercionForcing a party into an adverse or unfair transaction by taking advantage of that party’s situation. Often this is forcing lower-income parties into adverse or unfair transactions by taking advantage of their economic need — the parties have no reasonable alternatives to the transactions in light of their financial situation.
Consequentialist CorruptionThe degradation of a societal value that occurs when our attitudes or sensibilities change in response to allowing a particular practice — for example, a consequentialist corruption argument against prostitution or surrogacy might be that going forward we would begin to regard each other as objects with prices rather than as persons.
CorruptionThe alteration or denigration of a societal conception or value. For example, some argue that commoditizing organs has a corrupting influence by denigrating the value or special significance society gives to human organs by treating them like a consumer good.
Crowding OutThe idea that allowing the sale of a good will decrease the supply of the good in some way. In the context of organ selling, the most common crowding out concern is that allowing organ sales will decrease the number of altruistically donated organs.
EugenicsThe idea that certain genetic traits are more valuable than others, and should be selective for to improve the gene pool.
Ex AnteBefore the event. For example, what a surrogate wanted before she became pregnant.
Ex PostAfter the fact. For example, what a surrogate wanted after she became pregnant or delivered the baby.
ExploitationThe act of unduly benefiting at the expense of another, often through an unfair transaction. It comes in mutually beneficial and harmful varieties. For example, if A is having an allergic reaction, and B has an EpiPen (a necessary, often life-saving treatment for allergic reactions), it would be exploitation for B to sell the EpiPen to A for $1,000,000, because B is benefiting by taking advantage of A’s situation, forcing A into a transaction A would not otherwise accept.
Harmful ExploitationThe act of unduly benefiting at the expense of another, often through an unfair transaction, when the other party is worse off after the interaction.
Intrinsic CorruptionUnder this conception of corruption, an intervention is justified when there is an inherent incompatibility between the object and the way we evaluate it; meaning, the wrongfulness of an action is completed at the moment the action is, regardless of the consequences.
Justified PaternalismThe justified interference by the state or an individual in another’s decision making, generally justified by framing the intervention as protecting the individual from making the wrong decision. For example, a law forbidding placing children up for adoption on the grounds that the birth parents will later regret the decision could be construed as justified paternalism.
Kaldor Hicks EfficiencyWhen one party benefits from a change in the status quo, and other parties that are potentially made worse off by that decision can be compensated to the extent they’ve been made worse off in order to be made whole. The gains are larger than the losses, but the distribution of winners and losers may change.
Mutually Advantageous ExploitationThe act of unduly benefiting at the expense of another, often through an unfair transaction, when the other party is not left worse off after the interaction, but the benefits of the interaction were allocated unfairly to the exploiting party.
Pareto EfficiencyWhen one party benefits from a decision, but other parties are not made worse off by that decision.
Selective ReductionThe termination of excess pregnancies after IVF. Often done when parents only want one or two children, but three or four embryos successfully implant.
Undue InducementProposing an offer that is “too good to refuse” — an offer that, in light of the other party’s situation, is so good that the other party’s sense of autonomy is undermined, because they feel substantial pressure to accept.
Unfair DistributionThe unequal distribution of resources across society — often involving the disproportionate allocation of resources towards the wealthy and away from lower socioeconomic groups.