Lecture PSYC 314 Chapters 7-11

blueghost's version from 2016-04-01 00:31

Section 1

Question Answer
ABCs of attitudeaffect, behavior, cognition
affectively-based attitudesattitudes based more on feelings/values than cognitions
cognitively-based attitudesattitudes based primarily on belief's about the properties of an attitude object
A-B Problem inconsistency between attitude and behaviour; link between is weak
Reasoned Action Modelbehaviour can be predicted from intentions to act; intentions predicted from attitude and subjective social norms
theory of planned behaviourthe more specific the attitude, the better it will predict actual behavior; inclusion of perceived control to a revised reasoned action model
central route systematic; when motived, people pay attention to the facts in communication
peripheral routesuperficial; without motivation, people will only notice surface characteristics of message
factors influencing ELM routemotivation, ability (attention or distraction), need for cognition (tendency to enjoy and engage in deliberate thought)
need for cognitiontendency of an indiv to enjoy and engage in deliberate thought
Persuasion heuristics include: mere exposure, conditioning, attractiveness heuristic, expertise heuristc, message-length heuristic, moods as heuristic cues
defenses against persuasioninoculation and forewarning; need motivation and ability to defend attitudes
inoculationif knowing attitudes are going to be challenged, can gather info to help refute challenge
forewarning warning people that they are going to be exposed to persuasion
attitude consistencywant consistency; involves automatic and conscious parts of mind
cognitive dissonanceunpleasant state when attitude/behaviour are inconsistent; causes people to rationalize behaviour and bring attitude into line with actions
Ways of reducing dissonancechange our behaviour to bring it into line with dissonant cognition; justify behaviour through chaining on of the dissonant cognitions; attempting to justify by adding new cognitions
permanence of the decision effectmore important the decision, the greater the dissonance; decisions vary in how hard they are to revoke
self affirmationdistortions aimed at protecting self image
external justificationa reason or an explanation for dissonant personal behaviour that resides outside the individual (eg: large reward or severe punishment)
insufficient punishmentdissonance aroused when individuals lack sufficient external justification for having resisted a desired activity or object, usually resulting in individuals' devaluing the forbidden activity/object ; less sever the punishment means less external justification --> need for greater internal justification
self-persuasiona long-lasting form of attitude change that results from attempts at self justification ; involves internal justification for something (doing or thinking something because you believe it is right)
Ben Franklin Effectdissonance theory that predicts we will like someone more after doing that person a favor

Section 2

Question Answer
conformity a change in one's behaviour due to the real or imagined influence of other people
connectednesswanting to be close to others; allows us to survive happily in society,, helps society to function
masteryconforming to behaviour of others helps us know the right things to do in many situations
informational social influenceinfluence of other people that leads us to conform because we see them as a source of info to guide our behaviour
normative social influenceinfluence of other people that leads us to conform in order to be liked/accepted by them; results in public compliance but not necessarily private acceptance of beliefs/behaviours
When do people conform to informational social influence?situation is ambiguous or a crisis; other people are experts
when do people conform to normative social influence?unanimity; group is important; collectivist culture
social impact theoryidea that confirming to social influence depends on: the strength of group's importance, immediacy, and number of people in the group
When a group is important: highly cohesive groups --> no one wants to upset relationships; when people love/respect group members --> strong normative influence
reference groupspeople who are specifically relevant for a particular decision
intellective tasksreference group; people with relevant knowledge and skills
judgmental tasksreference groups; people who share our values, prejudices, frames of reference; often share our social category memberships
minority influencethe case where a minority of group members influence the behaviour or beliefs of majority; key is consistency--> must express same view over time & different members of minority must agree with one another
injunctive normspeople's perceptions of what behaviours are approved/disapproved of by others; what one SHOULD/OUGHT to do
descriptive normspeople's perceptions of how people actually behave in given situations, regardless of whether the behaviour is approved/disapproved of by others
Broken Window theorycommunity decay through conformity; something insignificant can progress so that everyone does it (like littering) causing people to be less willing to maintain public order and crime becomes more prominent
obedience to authoritysocial norm valued in every culture; hierarchy and obedience necessary to maintain function in society; tend to obey those seen as legitimate

Section 3

Question Answer
descriptive normsseeing what other people do has an influence on our own behaviour
injunctive normsour behaviour is also influenced by what people believe SHOULD be done
norm of social reciprocity norm that directs us to return the goods, services, and concessions that others offer to us; basic in almost all societies
Reciprocity across culturesindividuals from collectivist cultures more sensitive to reciprocity norm --> social commitment may be stronger; collectivist culture indivs may try to avoid receiving favors in the first place
direct reciprocityreturn what you receive, directly to the person from which you receive it
general reciprocityexchange in which the value of what is given is not calculated nor is the time of repayment specified; "pay it forward" reciprocity
norm of obedience to authority people should obey commands from legit authorities; can be formally enforced but is often privately accepted; authority cues increase obedience (ex: attire significant to certain profession)
When norms guide behaviourwhen formed by group consensus; when they are accessible--> direct reminders, seeing others follow norm, priming norm-related concepts
Accessibility of normsfrequent activation increases, presence of others, cooperation of other facilitates following norms; observation of groups
reactancedesire to restore threatened behavioral freedom; feeling like freedom has been taken away; usually comes from inappropriate, illegitimate demands; often result of heavy-handed social pressure
using systematic processing to reject ormsquestion how norms are used; question claims about relationships; question others' definitions of situation
getting people to change: how?reduce uncertainty; remind people of social norms; change perceptions of social norms-- people may not realize how many others do this norm --> pluralistic ignorance (ex: recycling) ; remove small barriers; introduce competition
Information to change behaviour?info is generally NOT sufficient, knowledge increase typically does not result in behaviour change
choice architecturearranging choices so that people pick what is best for them
libertarian paternalismlibertarian: freedom of choice, limited government intervention; paternalism: government looks out for people and society, disallows personal choice
nudgea deliberate design of the choice of architecture that alters peoples behavior in predictably positive ways
advantageous default option nudgewhen faced with a choice, people are predisposition to select the default option
information and encouragement nudgesgovernment encourages people to make certain choices that government has decided are good for them
default ruletendency to stick with status quo, know what is happening and expected
criticism of libertarian paternalism where is the line drawn; regulators not free from bias; voters may not have all the info or ability to decide/process the information

Section 4

Question Answer
groupseveral interdependent people who have emotional ties and interact on a regular baissis
reasons for joining groupssource of info, resolves ambiguity, helps us form identity and establish social norms and rules
social normsexpected standards of behaviour and beliefs established and enforced by a group
social rolesshared expectations in a group about how particular people are supposed to behave
status systemsreflection of the distribution of power among members
composition of groupssocial norms, social roles, status systems
social inhibition people sometimes do badly/worse when someone is observing them
Zajonc's Social Facilitation Theorypresence of others increases motivation, increased arousal facilitates or interferes with performance depending on task; individual may increase performance on well-learned tasks but decrease performance on difficult task
Why social loafing?not accountable for actions...
reducing social loafing?make individual contributions identifiable, if you care about it or your relationship with group members, loafing is naturally lower
deindividuation lecture commentsother effects of inability to monitor individual behaviour; loosening of normal constraints on behaviour when people are in a crowd (leads to increase in deviant/impulsive acts; increases obedience to group norms); mob mentality
mob mentalityloss of sense of responsibility for our actions; characteristic of deindividuation
crowdinga subjective, psych state--> perception of too many people in the space, negative feelings; source of stress
sensory overload modelamount of info which needs to be processed overloads capability
density-intensity modelcrowding intensifies whatever is happening
arousal/attribution modelarousal from situation (ambient stimuli, invasion of space, etc.) is attributed to other people, resulting in perceptions of crowding
cognitive control modeldecreased feelings of control and freedom in a crowd
theories of crowdingsensory overload, density-intensity, arousal/attribution, cognitive control
noise pollution stressful, annoying, and intrusive noise; most annoying kind is loud and intermittent, high frequency, uncontrollable
negative effects of long exposure to noisehearing loss, high blood pressure, mental issues, disruption of tasks that require attention, memorization, or vigilance
components of social psychology of environmentarchitectural psych, human factors and ergonomics, environmental psych (physical environment, social environment, environmentalism)
environmental psych in workhuman factors and ergonomics; physical environment and job satisfaction; ambient effects on performance; worker perceptions about environment and work motivation; psych importance of environment (status, privacy, etc.)
open plan office pros and consless privacy, more social activity, noise, flexible, low cost, intended to foster communication and cohesion, social facilitation may help with simple tasks

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