Lecture Exam IV

alkathryn's version from 2016-11-21 05:41


Question Answer
Which of the following does NOT belong to the conducting portion of the respiratory system?alveoli
Smokers are more susceptible to respiratory infections becausetheir respiratory passages lose cilia, which would otherwise remove bacteria
What happens to the alveoli if surfactant is not produced? Why?The alveoli collapse/increase in surface tension
At rest, the average breathing rate of an adult is12 to 15 breaths per minute
When humans exhale, air goes from the bronchus into thetrachea
When we breath inthe intercostal muscles move up and the diaphragm moves down
If alveolar volume increases, alveolar pressuredecreases
Most carbon dioxide is transported as ___ in the bloodbicarbonate ions
Which one of the under given structures is NOT a part of the respiratory membrane?RBC membrane
The amount of air in excess of tidal volume that can be inhaled with maximum effort is the _________inspiratory reserve volume
Which of the following enzymes in an RBC break H2CO3 down to water and carbon dioxide?Carbonic anhydrase
The pH of the cerebrospinal fluid is monitored by which of these brainstem centers?Central chemoreceptors
Emotional states are integrated by the ___, which generates an output that creates such respiratory variations as laughing and crying.Pontine Respiratory Group
Which of the following muscles contract to start normal expiration?no muscles contract
The Hering-Breuer reflexprevents the over-stretching of the lungs.
The carotid and aortic bodies will communicate with the primary respiratory center whenblood oxygen levels are low.
Hemoglobin assists in the transport ofhydrogen ions, carbon dioxide, and oxygen.
When plasma glucose concentration exceeds the renal plasma threshold,glucose appears in the urine.
Aldosterone from the adrenal cortex causes sodium ions to beconserved and water to be conserved.
After work Lina relaxes by drinking two beers, and soon has to urinate. The alcohol is a diuretic because itinhibits ADH secretion
The lungs are part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway that helps regulateblood pressure
Another name for urination ismicturition
Removal of the posterior pituitary will immediately causean increase in urine volume.
Angiotensin II is best known for its ability tostimulate aldosterone secretion
The kidneys produce renin whenthe blood pressure in the afferent arteriole decreases.
Atrial natriuretic hormoneis secreted when atrial blood pressure increases.
Which of the following is the countercurrent multiplier in the kidney?the loop of Henle of a juxtamedullary nephron
The stimulus for renin secretion is a drop in systemic blood pressure.
The ascending limb of the loop of Henle is impermeable to sodium chloride and actively transports water into the surrounding interstitial fluids.False
Once a substance is separated from the blood supply by the nephron, it is always excreted in the urine.False
Water balance and electrolyte balance are interdependent becauseelectrolytes are dissolved in water.
The movement of water and electrolytes between fluid compartments is regulated primarily byhydrostatic pressure and somatic pressure
The osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus cannot detect the change in body fluids until the loss is decreased to around 20% of body water.False
Holding one's breath tends to make the blood more acidic.True
_________ is the most common extracellular cation, while _________ is the most abundant intracellular cation.Sodium; potassium
What is the normal pH of the blood?7.35-7.45
Diabetic ketoacidosis is an example of which inbalance?metabolic acidosis
Which of these is considered a secondary defense against changes in pH?renal excretion of hydrogen ions
Which of the following favor the development of edema?hypoproteinemia
Electrolyte balance in the body usually refers to the balance of _.Salts
Which acid-base imbalance den result from pneumonia, hypoventilation, or obstruction of airways?respiratory acidosis
How are sodium levels and blood pressure related?Increased plasma sodium levels increase water retention, blood volume, and blood pressure.
Angiotensin II, aldosterone, and ADH each help decrease urine output.True
What hormone works to regulate the calcium ion concentration in the blood?parathyroid hormone
Which of the following is not a diuretic?Chocolate
Respiration is gas exchange between the atmosphere and cells.True
The events of respiration areventilation, external and internal respiration, and cellular respiration.
Which of the following bones does not house a sinus?Zygomatic
The enzyme carbonic anhydrase causes carbon dioxide to react with bicarbonate ionsFalse
Globin isthe protein part of hemoglobin, which carries oxygen in the blood.
A mother and two young children found passed out in their apartment, so they give the patientshighly concentrated oxygen and some carbon dioxide.
Cancer that originates in the lungs is most likely to begin inepithelial (lining) cells.
The primary chemical stimulus for breathing is the concentration ofcarbon dioxide in the blood
Most oxygen in the blood is transported asoxyhemoglobin
Gas exchange in the lungs happens by the process ofdiffusion
The volume of air in a normal breath is calledtidal volume.
The volume of air that can be exhaled after normal exaltation is theexpiratory reserve volume
The exchanged of gases occurs in thealveoli
Which of the following describes a correct order of structures in the respiratory passageway?pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles
The structure which closes off the larynx is theepiglottis
Which of the following does NOT belong to the conducting portion of the respiratory system?alveoli
The exchange of gases between blood and cells is called cellular respirationFalse
Smokers are more susceptible to respiratory infections becausetheir respiratory passages lose cilia, which would otherwise remove bacteria
The true vocal cords and the opening between them are called theglottis
During expiration, the volume of the thorax _________ as the diaphragm _________decreases, relaxes
Arrange the following structures in the correct order as air passes through them traveling from the bronchi4, 3, 1, 2
Surfactantreduces surface tension of the fluid lining the alveoli
Which of these lung volumes/capacities is the largest?vital capacity
If a person's vital capacity is 4000mL,1500 mL
What happens to the alveoli if surfactant is not produced? Wh?The alveoli collapse/increase in surface tension
What does Boyle's Law state concerning the relationship between pressure and volume?B and C are correct
Which of the following is not a function of the kidneys?Synthesis of plasma proteins
A renal corpuscle includes the _________ and _________glomerulus, glomerular capsule
Indicate the parts of a renal tubuleProximal convoluted tubule, descending limb, ascending limb, distal convoluted tubule
A nephron consists of _ and _a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule
The renal medulla is composed of _, whereas the renal cortex is composed of _renal pyramids, nephron tubules
The first capillary bed associated with the nephronfilters
Once in the glomerulus, the filtrate moves into therenal tubule
The reabsorption of glucose occurs primarily through the walls of theproximal convoluted tubule
When plasma glucose concentration exceeds the renal plasma thresholdglucose appears in the urine
When sodium ions are reabsorbed through the wall of the renal tubule by active transport, chloride ions arereabsorbed by passive transport
The countercurrent mechanism functions primarily in thenephron loop
The hormone ADH promotes water reabsorption through the walls of thedistance convoluted tubule and collecting duct
Which of the folliowing would increase the rate of glomerular filtration?increased blood pressure
As a result of very low arterial blood pressure, glomerular hydrostatic pressuredrops and filtration decreases
Aldosterone from the adrenal cortex causes sodium ions to beconserved and water to be conserved
A renal clearance test determines the rate at which the kidneys canremove a particular substance rom the blood
An increase in glomerular osmotic pressure _ the rate of glomerular filtration.increases
Filtration rate in the glomerulus is increased byboth vasodilation of the afferent arteriole and vasoconstriction of the efferent arteriole.
The juxtaglomerular apparatus regulates the filtration rate by _ and by _vasodilation of the afferent arteriole. renin-angiotensin II vasoconstriction the renal artery
A decrease in the glomerular hydrostatic pressure of a glomerular capsule will _ the rate of glomerular filtration.decrease
The composition of glomerular filtrate differs from that of plasma by includingthe same substances as plasma except for larger protein molecules
After work Lina relaxes by drinking two beersinhibits ADH secretion
The relative concentration of potassium ishigher in urine than plasma or glomerular filtrate
Secretion of atrial natriuretic peptideincreases sodium excretion
Autoregulation refers tomaintaining a constance GFR
Which of the following correctly lists the order of structures through which urine flows after its formation in the nephron?calyx, renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra