Lecture 4

orlando005's version from 2018-04-25 06:21

Section 1

Question Answer
Retributivismis usually contrasted with deterrence on precisely these points: it affirm, the rightfulness, independently of any good consequences that might result, of punishing an offender – but only if h/she is morally accountable
Hedonistic personseeks pleasure and avoid pain!
General deterrenceaims to have an impact on more than the individual offender; the apprehension and punishment of a single individual serves as an example to other offenders and potential law violators
Specific deterrenceefers to efforts that keep the individual offender from violating the law again in the future; the experience of punishment will deter the individual who has been punished from future illegal activity
Severityinvolves making certain that punishments provide enough pain to offset the pleasure received from the criminal act.
Certaintydeals with the chances of being caught and punished
Celerityrefers to the swiftness of the societal response.
Cross-sectional analysesStudies of severity typically look at the death penalty
panel design follows a number of separate units (such as states, counties, or individuals) over a period of time. In many respects, it is a combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches in a single study.
Meta-analysesanalyze published (research/studies) results in an attempt to provide some meaning to the state of knowledge
Absolute deterrenceEffect of a particular punishment relative to no punishment at all
Marginal deterrenceEffect of a punishment relative to another punishment
Various problemsno control for the types of treatment received; longer periods of imprisonment are related to more serious offenses, longer offense histories, behavior in the institution.
Impactevaluations typically focus on victim and offender satisfaction with the process; level of compliance or completion of the agreed-upon settlement considered; both victims and offenders express satisfaction; most meetings culminate in an agreement
Martinsonresearcher who claimed that with few and isolated exceptions, rehabilitation has no appreciable effect on recidivism
Tautologicaa circular argument
Intensive supervision probationprobation using team supervision, a high number of contacts between the client and officer, curfew and/or house arrest, restitution, employment or school attendance, drug testing, community service, counseling, and treatment.

Section 2

Question Answer
Selective incapacitationemphasizes identifying high-risk offenders and subjecting only that group to intervention.
Collective incapacitationrefers to the imposition of sentences upon everyone exhibiting the same behavior
Electronic monitoringIncapacitation without the use of incarceration.
GPS technology uses satellites to locate a person or monitor his or her movement
Subsequent analyses:several studies arrive at same conclusion; major support for rehabilitation looks at outcomes besides recidivism
aggregate-level evaluationlooks for changes across large groups of subjects; changes in rates of offending or recidivism; minimal impact here
individual-level evaluationsfocus on qualitative changes in the individual; attitudinal shifts, psychological adjustment, ability to relate to others, and increased life skills; any program can point to at least a few successes when the criteria for success is movement along one of these qualitative dimensions.
Cognitive-behavioral interventionstarget known predictors of deviant behavior and recidivism; target high-risk offenders in community settings
Multi-Systemic Therapy (MST)community-based intervention that attempts to address family, peer, school, community, and other influences that may prompt or lead to deviant behavior; involves parental and family interventions, social-cognitive strategies, and academic skills services
Cognitive Thinking Skills Programaddress the cognitive processes or deficits that often lead to deviant behavior; focuses on identifying cognitive deficits and inappropriate decision-making;
Intensive supervisionFeatures team supervision, a high number of contacts between the client and officer, curfew and/or house arrest, restitution, employment or school attendance, drug testing, community service, counseling, and treatment. Evaluations present varying results. differ somewhat by type of offender and measures of recidivism.
Restorative justiceseeks to repair the harm that was done to both the victim and the community, and to “repair” the offender;
Victim-Offender Mediationictim and the offender are brought together to discuss a wide range of issues; trained mediator; identify for the offender the types and level of harm suffered by the victim; focus of the meetings is on repairing the harm done to the victim,
Family Group Conferencingbased on practices of the Maori in New Zealand; inclusion of family members, close friends, and other support groups of the victim and offender; a facilitator who attempts to keep the discussions moving in a positive direction;
Neighborhood Reparative Boards:typically deal with nonviolent youthful offenders; seek to restore the victims and community to pre-offense states, require the offender to make amends, and aid the offender in understanding the impact of his or her actions; open to the public
Peacemaking/Sentencing Circleall interested parties to participate in determining the appropriate sanctions; every participant is given the opportunity to speak, express his or her feelings about the crime, and offer opinions; great deal of planning and preparation is needed; outcome
Circle sentencingalso referred to as peacemaking circles; all interested parties are invited to participate in determining the appropriate sanctions for offenders; includes families, friends, agency representatives, and members of the general community; i
Drug courts one form of emerging specialty courts; use the court’s authority to prompt participation in and successful completion of treatment aimed at reducing drug use and related criminal behavior; courts represent a coalition of prosecutors, police, probation, judges, treatment professionals, social service agencies, and other community groups.

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