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Lecture 4

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kshinsky's version from 2018-04-02 17:04

Section

Question Answer
geneticsstudy of inheritance and inheritable traits
genesequence of nucleotides that code for RNA or polypeptide molecutles
genomesum of all genetic material in a cell or virus
structure of nucleic acidcomposed of nucleotides, complimentary base pairs
deoxyribonucleotideslinked through sugar and phosphates from dsDNA
5-3leading
3-5 lagging
eukaryote chromosomethreadlike and more visible during mitosis and meiosis
prokaryote chromoometypically circular and found in nuceloid
antiparallelconstructed similar, but opposite of each other
haploidsingle copy of a gene
plasmidsmall molecule of DNA that replicates independently of the chromosome
F plasmid carries instructions for conjugations
conjugationprocess by which bacterial cells transfer DNA to one another
R plasmidresistance genes
Bacterial DNA replicationDNA rep begins at the origin, DNA helices unzips the DNA, creates rep fork that exposes the nucleotides of both strands, the proteins stabilize so they don't rejoin
DNA polymerase binds each strand and begins to add complimentary base pairs
Okazaki fragmentsbreaks between the nucleotides
DNA polymerase IIIin the leading strand, brings forward the correct complimentary base pairs
synthesis of lagging strandprimase, DNA polymerase III proofreads, discontinuing Okazaki fragments, DNA polymerase I replaces RNA primers and proofreads the short segment, DNA ligase seals the nicks between the adjacent Okazaki fragments
primasesynthesize more than one primer
DNA replication is bidirectionalprocess in both directions from origin
genotypeactual set of genes in genome
phenotypephysical features and functional traits of organisms
central dogma of geneticsDNA->RNA->protein/polypeptides
initiation of transcription (RNA)RNA polymerase binds to DNA sequence known as promoters, RNA polymerase unzips and unwind DNA in the promoter and creates a bubble
elongation of RNAcomplimentary base pairs being to bind to DNA, RNA polymerase link adjacent ribonucleotides, enzyme continues to move own the DNA strand, creation of mRNA
termination of RNA transcriptionwhen RNA polymerase and RNA are released from the DNA, self determination, rho dependent termiantion
DNA initiation of translationtRNA attaches at the ribosomes P site
DNA elongationtRNA delivers aminoacid, ribozyme forms peptide bond between terminal aa. PP is now attached to tRNA, engird supplied by GTP causes tRNA to move down to A->P->E., empty tRNA then released from the E site
termination of DNAribosome disassociates from the subunit, release factors halt elongation and stop codon
mutationchange in nucleotide sequence
silent mutationno change in phenotype
missense mutationsubstations in a nucleotide seq, resulting in a codon that specifies amino acid
nonsense mutationcause amino acid to be replaced by stop codon
frameshift mutationinsertion or deletion of nucleotide
mutagenchemical or physical agent that introduces a mutation
ionizingxray, gamma ray
nonionzinguv light
DNA repairresponse to any mutation that may occur in the DNA
single strand repair cell must cut away a section of single stranded DNA containing the damage and use the complimentary strand as a template to repair the gap
ames test test for mutations
genetic reocmbiationexchange of nucleotide sequence between two DNA molecules
homologous sequencesegments that are identical or almost identitical
ligasereconnects the strands in the new combos
horizontal gene transferdonor cell contributes parts of its genome to recepient cel
horizontal trasfromationreceptient takes DNA from environment
streptococcus pneuomoniarat inoculated with S strain and R strain
competentcells that have the ability to take up DNA from the environment
horizontal tranductionDNA transferred from one cell to another
viral replicationbacteriophage attache to genome, phage enzymes degrade cells, phage directs the cell to synthesze new phage DNA and proteins, hose cells lyses, and daughter cell is formed
bacterial conjugationF plasmid and R plasmid by pilus
memorize

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