Lec 9 Miscellaneous Inorganic Pharmaceutical Agents

dexeroso's version from 2017-06-19 03:04

Major Division of Oxygen Requirement

Question Answer
Inhalants• Oxygen • Carbon Dioxide • Helium • Nitrogen • Nitrous Oxide
Oxygen Requirement• Anoxic • Anemic • Stagnant • Histotoxic
AnoxicThe oxygen supply to the tissues is inadequate because the blood arrives with its oxygen at a lowered tension.
AnemicOxygen tension is normal, but the amount of hemoglobin is inadequate to supply enough oxygen to the tissues
StagnantOccurs when the circulation is inadequate or when circulation is locally retarded.
Histotoxictissue cell oxidation may be interfered with in several ways: – It may depend on the failure of that form of oxidation which is chemically dehydrogenation – Toxic substances of exogenous origin
Cardiotonic drugsStagnant Therapy?
Uses of OxygenPneumonia, angina, asthma, bronchitis, etc. – For chloroform and nitrous oxide poisoning – Resuscitation – High altitudes (airplanes) and in submarines: O2 is supplied from tanks – For treating warts

Storage of Oxygen

Question Answer
OxygenStorage: Green colored cylinders
Oxygen (20%) is often used mixed with Helium for therapeutic purposes.Storage: Brown-Green colored cylinders
Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide MixtureStorage: Gray-Green colored cylinders


Question Answer
Carbon Dioxide– Used as a respiratory stimulant and in the treatment of CO-poisoning.
Carbon DioxideStorage: Gray metallic cylinders
Heliuma diluent for oxygen
Nitrogen Storage: Black Cylinder
Nitrous Oxide (laughing gas)
Nitrous Oxide– Anesthetic – Used often with 20 to 25% Oxygen as diluent
HeliumStorage: Brown
Nitrous OxideStorage: Blue Cylinder

Respiratory Stimulants

Question Answer
Ammonium CarbonateSal Volatile; Hartshorn
Ammonium Carbonate Consists of varying proportions of NH4HCO3 and NH2CO2NH4
Ammonium CarbonateUsed in the preparation of Aromatic Ammonia Spirit


Question Answer
ExpectorantsWorks by signaling the body to increase the amount or hydration of secretions, resulting in more yet clearer secretions and as a byproduct, lubricating the irritated respiratory tract.
Expectorants• Sodium Iodide • Potassium Citrate • Ammonium Carbonate • Ammonium Chloride • Ammonium Iodide • Antimony Potassium Tartrate
Water TherapyBest expectorant?
EmeticsAgents that cause vomiting (emesis)
Emetics• Cupric Sulfate • Zinc Sulfate • Cadmium Chloride • Antimony Potassium Tartrate

Dental Products

Question Answer
Stannous FluorideAnticariogenic
Sodium FluorideAnticariogenic
Ammoniacal Silver Nitrate Solution (with RA such as formaldehyde or eugenol)Protects dentin
AmalgamDental fillings(Mercury,silver, tin, and copper)
Calcium SulfatePlaster of Paris (CaSO4.2H2O)
Calcium Sulfate– Calcii Sulfas Exsiccatus – Component of pasta
Zinc ChlorideDentin desensitizer
Zinc-Eugenol Cement (Zinc + Clove oil)Dental protective, dentrifice


Question Answer
Physiological antidotecounteracts the effects of a poison by producing other effects
Chemical antidotechanges the chemical nature of the poison
Mechanical antidoteprevents the absorption of the poison
Universal Antidote( Mechanical antidote)MgO/Activated Charcoal/Tannic Acid

Physiological Antidote

Question Answer
Sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfateCN- combines with the ferric ion of cytochrome oxidase which stops the electron transfer process.
Cyanide poisoningCN- combines with the ferric ion of cytochrome oxidase which stops the electron transfer process. (What poison?)

Chemical Antidote

Question Answer
Cupric sulfatePhosphorus poisoning
Sodium phosphateIron poisoning
Magnesium sulfateBa and Pb poisoning
Precipitants(Chemical Antidote)– Cupric sulfate: Phosphorus poisoning – Sodium phosphate: Iron poisoning – Magnesium sulfate: Ba and Pb poisoning

Mechanical Antidote

Question Answer
adsorbents– Kaolin – Activated Charcoal