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Learning and Cognition 2

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chloe15's version from 2017-04-24 03:48

Section 1

Question Answer
Diagrams and Problem SolvingAbstract problem concrete.
Gets rid of unneeded info.
Helps with a lot of info
Symbols and Problem SolvingHelp represent abstract info.
-Algera
Paying Attention and Problem SolvingUnderstand the problem.
Look at inconsistencies.
Focus on apporpriate part.
Situated Cognition and Problem SolvingMake it relevant. Boy selling candy to find the ratio.
Eliminating Distracting Thoughts and Problem SolvingGet rid of distracting thoughts to help you understand what the question is asking
3 Components of Problem Solving1. Initial State
2. Goal State
3. Obsticles
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Section 2

Question Answer
Fixed MindsetNo effort can help you preform better
Growth Mindset Don't get locked into a mental set
Divergant ThinkingExpand thinking.
-Brainstorm
-Accept all answers
Creativity and Intrinsic MotivationMore creative when the person enjoys doing it.
Do our best.
Extrinsic Motivation and CreativityNot as creative when doing it for reward.
Need useful feedback.
Mental SetGet stuck in a certain way of solving a problem.
Analogy ApproachUsing a solution similar to an earlier problem to help solve the new problem.
Determine the real Problem
Means-End HeuristicTurn the problem to subproblems.
Reduce the difference between initial state and goal state of the sub problem.
Creativity and Self EfficacyAbility to organize and carry out a task
Creativity and PerseveranceAbility to keep working on a task, even when obsticles appear
Convergent ThinkingSingle out a thought or idea. -Multiple choice question
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Section 3

Question Answer
Concept of IQMental Age / Chronological age X 100
Binet and Simon were creators
Deviation IQCompares children to same age peers
SB-5Asks age appropriate questions
Can be given to ages 2-85+
WISC-5Verbal, performance, and math.
Ages 6-16
WAIS-4Verbal, performance, and math.
Ages 13 and up
WPPSI-4Performance.
Ages 2.5-7.5
Ethnicity and IQMay have problems because of language barriors. Raven Progressive Matrices: Logic and not Language. Culturally fair
Spearmans 2 Types of IntelligenceGeneral: Many people should know.
Specific: Specific to a person, (Major)
Gardner's 8 Types of IntelligenceLinguistic,
Logic/Math,
Music,
Body,
Spatial,
Naturalist,
Intrapersonal,
Interpersonal
2 Main Types of Gardner'sLinguistic and Logic/Math
Sternberg's Triarchic Thoery1. Componential or analytic (Math, logic, verbal) traditional.
2. Experiential (Creative and intuition).
3. Practical (Common Sense).
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Section 4

Question Answer
Inductive Reasoning Specific details to generalized conclusion
Deductive ReasoningGeneral principals to specific conclusion
Type 1 ProcessingFast and automatic
Type 2 Processing Slow and Controlled focused attention
Dual ProcessingDistinguish between 2 types of cognitive processing
Conditional Reasoning TaskDescribes the relationship judged as valid or invalid... IF... THEN
Syllogism2 statements that we must assume to be true plus a concludion. "All, None, Some"
AntecedentFirst statement... "IF" part of the statement
ConsequentSecond statement. Contains "THEN"
Affirm the ConsequentInvalid... This is a fruit therefore this is an apple
Deny the Consequent Valid... This is not a fruit therefore this is not an apple
Affirm the AntecedentValid... This is an Apple therefore this is a fruit
Deny the AntecedentInvalid... This is not an apple therefore this is not a fruit
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Section 5

Question Answer
Difficulties with Linguistically Negative InformationPeople take longer to evaluate problems and errors
-Memory Strain
Difficulties with Abstract Reasoning ProblemsLess accurate.
Concrete information makes it more accurate
Belief BiasPeople make adjustments based on prior beliefs, rather than on rules of logic. Conflicts with background knowledge
Confirmation BiasConfirm or support a hypothesis rather than disprove it.
Reduce Belief and Confirmational BiasFlexible thinking
Representitive Heuristic and Errors in Decision MakingSmall Sample: Assume a small sample is good enough to represent a larger population.
Base Rate: People ignore the base rate.
Conjunction: Judge the probibility of the conjunction of 2 events to be greater than the probability of a constituent event
(Ex spilling hot coffee, over spilling coffee)
Availability HeuristicExamples..
Familiarity: Hear more of it means more biased.
Recognition: Biased for what we recognize.
Illusory Correlation: Assume relationship.. Stereotypes
Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic Making an estimate, people start with 1st approximation (anchor) then make adjustments. Typically adjustments are not large enough. Range within which we expect a number to fall a certain % of the time
Framing EffectBackground and the way things are worded effect a decision.
Overconfidence in Decision MakingJudgements are higher than they should be based on performance.
-Stick with a decision once it is said out loud.
Prospect and Decision MakingGains; Avoid risks. (Save lives vs Lives lost)
Ecological Rationality and Decision MakingPeople make a variety of heuristics to help make useful decisions in the real world
Default heuristic and Decision MakingIf there is a default option, then people will choose it
MaximizersExamine many options.
Feel more regret and depressive symptoms
SatisficersDo what feels good
Weiners Model of Attribution and Dweck's Reducing Learned HelplessnessPeople don't think they have the ability.
They need to try harder and change their thoughts
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Section 6

Question Answer
Memory Development in Infants.. Recognition of MomRec. mom's voice 2-3 weeks before birth.
Likes her face and voice better than others.
How is Memory Developed in Infants?Association between two objects.
Look at one longer or turn body toward the prefered stimuli
Memory Development (Infants) Conjugate ReinforcementUse this to asses infant memory.
Tie leg to mobile above crib to see if they will kick to make it move.
Children and Working MemorySame 3 Working memory components as adults.
2 years remember 2 objects.
9 years remember 6 objects
Children and Long TermRecognition better than recall.
Link previous experiences together
Children and Memory StrategiesDon't use them effectively.
Can organize but have to be prompted.
Imagry doesnt develop until adolecents
Childern and Eyewitness TestimonyMore accurate.
Less accurate with leading questions.
Intellectual disabilities not as good.
Infantile AmnesiaWe don't recall info from before 3 years. -Traumatic Experinces remembered more
Elderly and Working MemorySimple task as good as middle age.
Difficult task not as good
Elderly and Long Term MemoryWell at sematic memory tasks, puzzles.
Enviornmental cues help.
Recognition declines slowly or not at all
Elderly and Age DifferenceChanges in the brain.
Less effective use of memory strategies
Metamemory in ChildrenDon't know effort is needed.
Overconfident and don't use memory strategies.
Underestimate how much effort is needed
Metamemory in ElderlyOverconfident on some tasks.
Dementia effects memory not as good.
Self Efficacy: take steps to keep good memory (Reading)
5 Stages of Language DevelopmentCrying is first step.
Cooing: noncrying vowel sounds.
Babbling: combos of con and vowels.
Echolalia: Imitating on purpose.
Holophrases: 1 word sentences
Telephrases: 2 word sentences
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