Leacture test 2

liveitupsunshine's version from 2017-06-30 23:19

Section 1

Question Answer
the new name for glycocalyxEPS Eaxtracellular polyemic Substance
what are the two types of EPScapsule and slime layer
what is a capsulea neatly orginized glycocalyx that prevent pharocytosis
what is slime layeran unorginized and loose glycocalyx that allow cells to attach and adhere
what is a peptidoglycana polymer of repeating chans of Nag and Nam
what is NAGn-acetyl glocamine
what id NAmn-aceytyl muramic acid
what forms chains or cross bridges to hold nag and nam together in single layerspentaglycin
what extends vertically to form one layer so next Nag - Nam layer can attachtetra peptide
what is terta peptideholds cell wall in stacks
what is peptidecross bridges holds cell wall together horizontally
what is trichoic acidfiliments that strengthen the peptidoclycan. (absent in G-)
what provides antigenic veriation in peptidoglycan and regulates cation (+) movementtrichoic acid
what charictoristics do G- cell walls have similar to G+Nag Nam tetra peptide
what charectoristics do G- have different the G+no pentoglycn, no trichoic acid, only one layer of peptidoglycan
what is the location between cell membrane and the outer space of the cell wall calledperiplasmic space
what are charictoristice of the periplasmic spacefluid filled environment storing bacteria, enzymes, and tons of other things it doesnt want to use yet, phosphlipids move all around it
what are charectoristics of the outer membranephospholipid bylayer, lipopolysacchorides with O antigens
what happens when the G- cell dies the Lipid A becomes a endotoxin
what is endo toxinG- bacteria only when cell dies
what is exotoxintoxins that the bactirium cell releases when it is still alive

Section 2

Question Answer
gram + gram reactioncrystal violet turns cell blue or purple
G+ peptidoglycin layerthick multilayered
Gram - gram reaction can be discolorized to acccept counter stain (safranin) pink or red
G- peptidoglycan layerthin (single)
what cell has trichoic acidG+
periplasmic space in G+granular layer
periplasmic space in G-periplasm
what cell has an outer memberaneG-
what cell has lipopolysacoridesG-
what is the level of lipid and lipoprotien in the cells G- high . G+ low (only lipid is mycolic acid)
how many rings are in the basel body of a G-4
how many rings are in the basel body of a G+2
what toxin doe both G- and G+ releaseexotoxins (only G- releases endotoxins)
what level are the cells resistant to physical damageG- low and G+ is high due to thicker cell wall/membrane
what cell has a wall easily disrupted by lysosomesG+
what medicine is G+ suseptible topenicellin and sulfimide
what medicines is G- suseptible to streptomycin, tertracycline
what cell is inhibited by basic dyeG+
what cell has a resistance to drying, dehydrating, decsicationG+

Section 3

Question Answer
what is another name for plasma membranefluid mosaic modle
plasma membrane what kid of protiens and what do they doperiphrial and intgral (transmimbrane) they act as pores or channels for stuff to pass through
what is the charictoristic function of a PORK membraneselectively permieable, (semi) allows only passangers of the same molecule
what is the only substance that is freely permeable through any membranewater
where does ATP production happen in Prok and EukEuk- mitochondria Prok-cell membrane
what are the photosynthetic folding called in ProkChromatophores or Thyalkoids
what are the photosynthetic foldings in a Euk, and sub layersChoraplasts, sac-vilacoids stacks-grana
what can breakdown the cell membranealcohol, quantary ammonium (detergents), and polymycin antibiotic (causes leakage of cell contents)
what are the two transport machanismspassive transport prosses and active transport process
what is passive transport poered bykenetic enery
what is active transport poered bychemicle energy (atp)
what are the three kind of diffusions in passive transportptp= simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion and osmosis
what is simple diffusionmovement of a solute from an area of high conserntration to an area of low concentration
what is facilitated diffusionsolute combines with a transporter protien in the membrane, from more comcentration to lower across membrane for protien
what is osmosismovement across a selectivly permeable membrane form an area of high ater cons to low water cons.
what is aquaporinsfunctions as a channle
what is osmatic pressurepressure required to prevent movvement of pure water into a solution with solutes
what is isotonic solutionmedium which overall cans. of solute equals that found in cell
what is hypertonicmore outside the cell, (water moves outside cell cause cytoplasm to shrink (plasmosi - mostly pork)s)
what is hypotonicmore inside the cell (water moves inside causing cell to burst (osmotic lysis - mostly Euk)
active transportrequireds transpoter protien, from low cons to high)
what is group translocation(prok omly) requirs transporter cell and PEP, substance is taken in and chemically modified so it cannot exit
what is endocytosis(euk only) (phegocytes) psudopods extend and engulf particle (pinocytosis) membrane folds inward bringing in fluid and dissolved particle with a vessicle
what is exocytosis(euk only ) secretions vessicle pushes particle/substance out of cell through a pore it creats

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