Large Ani. Sx- Musculoskeletal sx and conditions 1

wilsbach's version from 2015-11-04 19:41

Intro, maintainance, white line abscess, infections and ulcers

Question Answer
most common cause of lameness in food animals?90% of bovine lameness involves the foot-- Be Sure the Foot is not involved before doing other dx!!! always check the foot!
Examination to determine the lame limb is usually done by...watching the animal moving in a paddock, small pen, or stall. It is also Possible to use a long chute
to do the Visual exam from a few feet away for lameness- best conditions for this to be done on? what should you observe for?Best to do with the animal standing on solid bare ground (not high pasture grass or mud)--> observe for: Swelling, Redness, Hoof deformities, Distension of the flexor tendon sheath, Wounds, Stance to reduce weight bearing on a claw, or heel or toe
how do you observe for swelling?Observe the distance between the dewclaws! Symmetrical swelling is most commonly due to foot rot. Asymmetrical swelling is an indication that deeper tissues are involved
symmetrical swelling is most commonly due to....Asymmetrical swelling is due to....symmetrical: foot rot. Asymmetrical: deeper tissues are involved (Foot rot that has been allowed to progress, Puncture wounds)
what are some different options for Restraint for a "hands on" examination?Consider tranquilization, Tying a foot to a stanchion or a chute, Attach a rope above the hock and tying to an overhead beam, Use of an especially designed chute that will allow leg restraint, Use of a rope to cast the animal, Tilt table
how does a tilt table work?Animal is secured to the table, table tilted, limbs restrained
wuts dis? tie foot to stanchion to get a look at it
wuts dis? use of rope to cast the animal
is foot lameness more common in beef or in dairy cows?more common in dairy cows
why are dairy cows more prone to lameness than beef?Beef animals are routinely on soft, yielding and non abrasive surfaces, but Dairy cows must routinely walk on and stand on concrete
Approximately 70% of foot lameness in cattle is associated with...infxn
Contributing factors related to management which lead to foot lameness?Nutrition, Hygiene, Cow Comfort, Walking surfaces, Time spent standing on concrete, Hoof health, Trimming
is foot trimming the vets problem?Technician’s Job, but Veterinary Oversight
trimming--> how should the sole thickness be?should be about uniform width from toe to heel- can use thumb pressure- should be the slightest amount of give.
what trimming method is commonly used for dairy cows? how do you do it?Dutch Trimming Method. Start with the medial claw. Cut the toe perpendicular to the hoof wall 7.5 cm (3") from the start of the hard horn that is just distal to the coronary band. Trim the sole surface at the toe - many times no sole needs to be removed at the heel. Then Trim the hoof wall so that the cow can walk on a flat ventral surface of the hoof wall (more hoof wall will be removed at the toe). (Trim the lateral claw to the same length as the medial claw and in the same manner as the medial claw). Shape the sole of the claws so that the sole slopes slightly toward the interdigital space (reducing pressure on the axial aspect of the sole) [*this was for rear feet- if front feet, the same, but start with lateral claw]
If you are trimming and you find a claw is dzed, what are some things you can do to help?If a claw is diseased then that claw needs to be trimmed slightly shorter than the other claw so that it will be rested and allowed to heal. OR, If there is considerable damage to one claw then a block can be glued to the sound claw to rest the injured one.
why do dairy cow feet sometimes get way too thin?on cement all the time and is moved on concrete and there are sharp turns on alleyways of chute system- so places foot and rotates body weight, grinds surface of foot off-- sole can get markedly thin (problem)
how does White line abscess happen? If it is not treated, what can happen?Foreign material gains access to sensitive tissue at the junction of the wall and sole (white line). Because of the break in the integrity of the white line bacteria gain access to sensitive tissue. If not treated an abscess develops and: Drains at the white line, Drains at the coronary band, Under runs the sole
what are 4 etiological reasons for a cow to get white line abscess?Wet conditions weaken hoof walls, Trauma from rough uneven surfaces, Housing in which it is uncomfortable for cows to lie down (Cows normally spend half of the time lying down!), Facilities that require animals to turn quickly (grinds down on their hooves)
WHERE do white line abscesses occur most often?Most common on the lateral claw of the rear limb
what can you do to manage white line abscesses? what shouldn't you do? Establish adequate ventral drainage and remove all sole that has been under run by exudate.... probably best not to bandage. Consider a block on the sound claw in severe cases
Puncture wounds of the sole- Usually results in a abscess which undermines the sole. How do you dx and manage?Marked painful response to the application of hoof testers. Establish adequate ventral drainage with removal of undermined sole. Probably not best to bandage.
are cows with subsolar abscesses more or less lame than a horse with one?less lame, because they have 2 claws to bear weight on.
Sole ulcer, Pododermatitis circumscripta is aka?Rusterholtz Ulcer
what is the etiology of a Rusterholtz Ulcer (Sole ulcer, Pododermatitis circumscripta)?Excessive weight bearing/pressure on the sole surface! Subclinical Laminitis, Excessive moisture causing softening of the sole--> Excessive wear of a softened sole--> Sole pressure in this area causes ischemic necrosis. Poor claw trimming can increase sole pressure!
where is it most common to see a Rusterholtz Ulcer (Sole ulcer, Pododermatitis circumscripta)?Most common on the lateral claw of the rear and medial claw of the fore foot--> Located in the central area of the sole towards the heel. There is routinely a medial edge of solar horn that when removed reveals red, raw, protruding granulation tissue.
"There is routinely a medial edge of solar horn that when removed reveals red, raw, protruding granulation tissue" describes what condition? what problems (and most severe conditions) result from this problem?this describes a Rusterholtz Ulcer (Sole ulcer, Pododermatitis circumscripta). There is damage to the corium which results in slower than normal formation of solar horn tissue....Severe cases may involve the deep digital flexor tendon and navicular bursa
how do you manage/tx a Rusterholtz Ulcer (Sole ulcer, Pododermatitis circumscripta)?Remove under run sole, Remove granulation tissue, Transfer weight -sound claw (Trimming of the affected claw to transfer as much weight as possible to the healthy claw) You should NOT bandage/use astringents and caustics (delay healing)

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