Large Ani. Sx- Integument 5

wilsbach's version from 2015-11-06 14:27

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) + Melanoma + Canker + keloid + pressure sores + burns + dentigerous cysts

Question Answer
how common are squamous cell carcinomas?20% of the neoplasms recorded in the horse are squamous cell carcinomas
where do SCCs like to develop? (in general)Commonly develop at the muco-cutaneous junction, but May develop in any cutaneous area.. exposed areas of light colored animals are most commonly involved
where do SCCs like to develop? (Sepcific areas)Eye and adnexa - 33% --> Prepuce - 27% --> Glans penis - 17% --> Perineum of the mare - 12% --> Head - 10%
how does a SCC appear/behave?Usually papillary to cauliflower like to multi-nodular with varying amounts of ulceration and inflammation (Usually invade locally but are slow to metastasize)
what kinda color animals does SCC like?likes light colored areas of skin
what is considered the best way to tx SCC?sx excision
how useful is radiation therapy for SCC?Post surgical radiation reduces recurrence
aside from surgical excision (the best method) what other things can you try to do to sx SCC?Cryosurgery, Hyperthermia, Radiation, Laser surgery
how common are melanomas in the horse?One of the more common neoplasms of horses (sarcoids is most common tho)
do melanomas metastasize? Most melanomas in horses have metastatic potential, However, they are usually but not always slow to metastasize
who is at most risk for developing melanomas?Occur most commonly in gray and chestnut horses, Usually seen in animals greater than 10 years old - the older the horse the more common. Also, Associated with fading hair color Arabs and Lipizzan horses that are dark at birth and fade with age are more prone to develop melanomas
what are the most commonly affected areas on the body my melanomas?Perineum, tail head, anus, external genitalia, parotid salivary gland (but can occur in any area) and sometimes, can be internal with no external evidence
are smaller or bigger melanomas more likely to metastasize?Smaller masses are less likely to metastasize (Literature indicates that tumors over 4 cm in diameter are more likely to metastasize as compared to smaller masses)
which type of horse(s) are more likely to develop metastatic forms of melanoma?Non gray horses are more likely to develop metastatic forms (so grey horses more liekly to have not-metastatic forms!)
CQ: (T/F) do melanomas frequently involve the lower legs?they do not
CQ: (T/F) melanomas do not metastasizeF
CQ: (T/F) melanomas frequently involve the perineumT
CQ: (T/F) melanomas should not be removed surgicallyF (they should/can be)
CQ: (T/F) melanomas Metastasize as frequently as they do in humansF
what are some methods of tx of melanomas?Sx removal, cryosx, cisplatin (anti-cancer drug), 5-fluorouracil by injection or cream, BCG, A vaccine has been available, Cimetidine, Frankincense (mixed with DMSO)
canker can be AKA or AKA?Proliferative Pododermatutis or verrucous dermatitis
what is canker?This is a chronic villus proliferative growth
Proliferative Pododermatutis on the frog and sole is called....?canker
Proliferative Pododermatutis on the heel is called?grease heel
Proliferative Pododermatutis on the pastern is called?scratches
Proliferative Pododermatutis which involves the pastern and the fetlock and the lesions are more proliferative is called?grapes
does canker cause lameness?Animal is many times not lame
what is the etiology of canker/proliferative pododermatitis?Predisposed by but not always the result of filthy conditions. Occasionally seen when animals are on continuously wet pasture
what is the difference between canker and thrush?Canker and thrush involve the same area of the foot but thrush is an erosive condition and canker is proliferative
how do you tx canker?Requires radical surgical excision of all diseased tissue. (Usually best to perform surgery under general anesthesia, and with an Esmarch bandage)
once you have surgically excised the canker and controlled the hge with bandaging, you can apply a variety of topical meds under the bandage. which is the most effective, what are others you can use?Phycofixer (also for phycomycosis) is probably the best. Can also use Amway Pursue (a quaterinary ammonium class disinfectant), Paste made with thiabendazole powder and DMSO, A powder made with thiabendazole powder, iodoform and salicylic acid, Chloramphenicol tincture, Tetracycline (parenteral solution used topically), Metronidazole in a water soluble base (powder), Powered trimethoprim-sulphadiazine, Cisplatin has recently been recommended [A recent paper from Belgium reports that oral prednisolone (1 mg/Kg for 7 days, then 0.5 mg/Kg for 7 days and 0.25 mg/Kg for 7 days) shortened the treatment period considerably.]
how often do you wanna change bandages after canker removal sx?every day
what is the etiology of a keloid?This condition is commonly the result of an improperly managed wound, Usually secondary to irritation for prolonged periods (As a result of overzealous application of caustics to control granulation tissue, Inadequate protection from the environment)
what do keloids look like?This has the appearance of a large raised thickened scar
how might you be able to try to prevent a keloid?Daily application of emollient ointments to increase the pliability of the area is many times helpful in managing the condition. Also, Early management of difficult to heal wounds with silicon sheets is a possible consideration (One possible product is Cica-Care- This is a sheet of silicon that is used in human medicine for the treatment of scars (expensive 50 USD for a 5 x 6 inch sheet) in can be washed a reused)
what is the only way to correct the problem of keloids? difficulties with this?Surgical excision and closure of the defect is the only way to correct the problem. Unfortunately, Keloids commonly develops in areas with minimal excess tissue, making surgery most difficult
etology of pressure sores?Usually the result of the animal spending a considerable time laying down (most commonly the result of chronic laminitis)
dx of pressure sores?Typical lesions developing over bony prominences
how should you manage pressure sores? (tx)Keep wounds as clean as possible and Treat with antiseptic or antibiotic ointments. A mixture of Malox and zinc oxide (mixed to a runny paste) has been suggested. You shoul Minimize pain so the animal will not spend as much time down. Use appropriate bedding in the stall. Also, The use of sheets or blankets to minimize skin irritation (if weather permits)
what are examples of appropriate bedding in the stalls to avoid pressure sores- and inappropriate?Don't use pine shavings - turpentine in the shavings causes extra irritation. DO use Deep straw, Peat moss (easy on the skin but dirty)
what are the three major implications/complications of burns?Laminitis, Shock (need fluids/plasma!!), and resp. infection
what is the bug that just LOVES to live in burns?pseudomonas
what are the topical medications you use to treat burns, and what organism are we trying to most likely kill?trying to kill possible PSEUDOMONAS! (1) Silver preparations - silver sulfadiazine ointment (2) Gentamicin (3) dilute vinegar (*low pH markedly inhibits pseudomonas)
what dx things might you have to do to tx burns?Debride the area as necessary to remove eschar, Skin grafts are many times required
what is the etiology of dentigerous cysts?Congenital defect--> Result of incomplete closure of the first banchial cleft
what are the clinical signs of a dentigerous cyst?Swelling with a cystic lining that produces a mucoid discharge, Intermittent drainage, Usually at the base of the ear but might occur in other areas on the head
how imperative is it that you tx a dentigerous cyst?Considered a blemish - not necessary to remove!
wut is? dentigerous cyst
how do you tx a dentigerous cyst? Definitive management requires complete surgical removal! Introduction of a probe to determine the extent of the lesion--> Distend the draining tract with fluid and ligate the neck of the cyst to prevent contamination--> Surgical preparation of the area--> Careful dissection to remove the entire tract without opening the tract--> Usually necessary to remove the tooth remnant with a bone chisel--> Suture of the subcutaneous tissue and skin

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