what is the MAIN/MAJOR place where if there is a wound, it can lead to "pumping" of air? how does this happen?
Wound to the axilla--> what happens is that every time the horse takes a step, the wound is opening and air comes into it. The, when it does to bear weight on the limb, the edges of the wound are pushed together and the air that went into the wound cannot escape, so it is forced into the surrounding SQ (IMAGE: red line marks approximate area where the wound would to be cause pumping)
3 types of wounds which lead to SQ air?
(1) wounds that pump air (AXILLA!) (2) wounds in the resp tract (3) gas forming organisms in wounds
what kinda resp tract wounds can lead to SQ air?
Wounds of the trachea, or Early removal of a tracheotomy tube
what is a common procedure/treatment done on horses that has a high chance of resulting in a clostridial infection?
Intramuscular banamine tends to result in clostridial infections-- Suggest that it not be given IM
what are two ways that gas forming (usually clostridial) organisms can infect an animal and result in SQ gas?
Contamination of deeper tissues with clostridial species (like banamine infection), Hematogenous spread of clostridial organisms (black leg in cattle)
how serious is an infection with a gas-forming organism? how will the animal present?
This is a Life-threatening problem! Animal will often have high temp, marked depression, anorexia, and swelling with tissue destruction
how do manage SQ air when it is From a wound that pumps air or involves the respiratory tract?
No treatment required - air will be absorbed in three or four days. The condition can be prevented or reduced by limiting the amount of movement (tying or stalling the animal)
how do you manage SQ air when it is Secondary to a clostridial infection?
Establish drainage and debride. Use Very high doses of antibiotics!! Anticipate large muscle slough, and arn owner of the severity - death is likely
Most commonly first develops in 3 to 6 year old animals -- incidence decreases after 15 yrs old
WHO (breeds) are sarcoids more common in? why?
Arabians, Appaloosas and Quarter Horses are more commonly involved. Linked to an inheritance - to equine leukocyte antigen W 13 (Similar associations have been found with the risk of papilloma development in humans, so there might be genetic suseptibility) Also More common in donkeys than horses - especially male donkeys.
are sarcomas benign or malig?
Described as benign tumors but some act as if malignant
what is the etiology of sarcoids?
Possible viral etiology, esp Bovine papilloma virus (BPV 1 and 2 have both been isolated from lesions). (however, Viral DNA can many times be found in normal skin of horses with sarcoids. Apparently can be latent and an unknown stimulus will cause the development of a sarcoid...so Might be the reason that excision surgery frequently is associated with recurrence)
what are the most common areas to see sarcoids in?
Face and muzzle, Ears, Periocular region, Distal limbs, Neck, Ventral abdomen, Areas of previous injury
(long notes) how do Common areas of involvement tend to vary with geographical areas?
US and Australia---> Distal Limbs and face are the most common areas. In ngland and Switzerland--> More common on the trunk
what are occult sarcoids?
mild cutaneous scaling and alopecia (basically flat on the tissue)
what are Verrucous or warty sarcoids?
Raised scaly with hair loss and thickened skin. Crack on the surface but rarely ulcerate