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Large Ani. Sx- Castration 2

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drraythe's version from 2016-04-29 14:27

Equine castration sx technique 2

Question Answer
Right handed surgeons will find it easier for the horse to be placed in _________ lateral recumbencyleft lateral
When surgery is performed in lateral recumbency, do you remove the lower or upper testicle first?lower first
what is a Henderson castrating tool and when is it used?used in recumbant castration of equine
how do you place the jaws of the henderson castrating tool relative to the long axis of the tool? what is it designed to be attached to?The Henderson castrating tool is a clamp with the jaws at right angles to the long axis of the tool (i think he meant balls?). It is designed to be at attached to a variable speed battery operated drill
describe equine castration in a recumbent position(L lateral if R handed surgeon. always take bottom ball first) basically the same as in standing (see other card) and can use henderson castrating tool to remove testicles--> The surgical approach is made to the common vaginal tunic--> Connective tissue is stripped from the spermatic cord without invading the vaginal tunic--> The Henderson castrating tool is used to clamp the spermatic cord--> The drill is activated to twist the spermatic cord until it breaks (this is used in place of the emasculator)
Techniques with primary closure--> why are these techniques less common? When are they usually preferred to be used?This is basically meaning Following the surgery the wound is closed. These techniques are more time consuming, require sterile technique and as a result are more expensive. Common to routinely use this technique on a unilateral cryptorchid to remove the testicle that is not retained
primary closure--> Removal of only the testicle is usually done on who? technique?most commonly used on younger animals. General anesthesia and normal surgical preparation--> A skin incision is made over the spermatic cord just anterior to the scrotum--> Incision is made in the common vaginal tunic--> Tension is applied to deliver the testicle and the epididymis through the incision made in the common vaginal tunic--> The ligament of the epididymis is cut to free epididymis and the testicle from the vaginal tunic--> The vascular elements of the spermatic cord are isolated, ligated and cut--> The vas deferens is cut to free the testicle so that it can be removed--> The common vaginal tunic and the subcutaneous tissue are closed with suture--> The skin is closed with a subcuticular suture pattern
primary closure--> Removal of the testicle plus a major portion of the scrotum is usually done on who? technique?commonly used on mature animals. General anesthesia and normal surgical preparation--> An elliptical skin incision is centered over the median raphe and includes the skin of the scrotum--> The subcutaneous tissue is divided along the margins of the elliptical skin incision and the scrotum is removed--> the spermatic cords are ligated and cut and the testicles removed--> Dead space is reduced with deeply placed sutures--> Subcutaneous tissue is closed--> Skin is closed with a subcuticular suture pattern
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Bovine castration technique

Question Answer
how are anesthesia and surgical prep done in bovine?Anesthesia and surgical preparation are not commonly performed
what are three different ways to access the testicle in bovine castration?(1) Removing the ventral one third of the scrotum (2) Vertical incisions over each testicle (3) Incisions through the skin over each testicle are made in a sagittal direction
what is the is the most common method used in younger animals to access the bovine testicle?Removing the ventral one third of the scrotum
describe how to access the testicle by Removing the ventral one third of the scrotumThis is accomplished by pulling downwards on the most ventral aspect of the scrotum and using a knife to make a horizontal incision through the skin and the median raphe (With this method surgical drainage is not as good as it is with ventral incisions over each testicle)
how is a newberry castrating knife used?
describe how to access the testicle with Vertical incisions over each testicle? what is a more time consuming procedure that is used for steers that might be entered in livestock shows?VERT: This is most commonly done by pulling distally on the skin of the scrotum inserting a knife just distal to the lateral aspect of one testicle forcing the knife through the median raphe to exit through the skin on the opposite side and then forcing the knife distally to produce an anterior and posterior skin flap (pac has post and lat view of this) Show-steer procedure: Incisions through the skin over each testicle are made in a sagittal direction (as compared to the transverse direction described above) (This technique results in a better looking scrotum (following healing) and is preferred in show animals)
traction of the intact common vaginal tunics to remove the testicles is common in who?Suggested for animals less than 500 pounds in weight
when you wish to remove testicle via traction of intact common vaginal tunic, should you apply steady slow traction or jerk suddenly on them, and why?Jerking as compared to slow traction is thought to result in rupture of the testicular artery in the peritoneal cavity rather than in the area of the inguinal canal and cause excessive internal hemorrhage (SO YOU WANT SLOW TRACTION!)
describe how to remove testicles via traction of the intact common vaginal tunics(animals under 500 lbs!!) Grasp each testicle separately--> Apply controlled traction until the cremaster muscle, vaginal tunic and spermatic vessels rupture (With controlled traction the spermatic vessels rupture and retract into the inguinal region. Jerking as compared to slow traction is thought to result in rupture of the testicular artery in the peritoneal cavity rather than in the area of the inguinal canal and cause excessive internal hemorrhage).
traction after incision of the common vaginal tunics to remove testicles is usually done in who? why?Suggested for animals greater than 500 pounds in weight. In these animals the common vaginal tunic is tough and the previously described method is quite difficult
describe how to remove testicles via traction after incision of the common vaginal tunics(animals greater than 500 lbs!!) Grasp each testicle separately and isolate it from surrounding connective tissue--> Incise the common vaginal tunic--> Prolapse the testicle out of the common vaginal tunic--> Apply controlled traction to the testicle to rupture the spermatic vessels in the inguinal region (Because this is routinely performed in larger animals with testicular vessels of increased size excessive peritoneal hemorrhage is a greater concern) --> Following removal of the testicle, tension is then applied to the vaginal tunic and as much of it as possible is surgically removed
between removal of testicle via traction with intact vaginal tunic versus incised vaginal tunic, excessive peritoneal hemorrhage is a greater concern in which, and why?in the INCISED technique, because this technique is used in LARGER (more mature) animals, which means their testicular vessels are larger (higher chance of sig bleeding)
If you decide to remove testicle via traction after incising of vaginal tunic, what do you do with the tunic? pros and cons? (2 options)(1) Tunics can be removed by applying emasculator to cut them (2) Tunics can be left in place (*Greater problem with post castration swelling and infection)
which technique to remove testicles can be performed at any age or size?Emasculator can be applied to cut tunics and cord as in an equine closed castration (crush and cut rather than pull)
explain the "scraping" technique for castrationTension is applied to the spermatic cord by pulling on the testicle and then a knife is used to scrape the cord to fray and divide it
how do you use henderson castration tool on bovine?This is a tool that is attached to a variable speed electric drill--> The approach to the testicle is as with normal castration--> The tool is applied to the spermatic cord and the drill is engaged--> The cord is twisted until it ruptures--> Hemorrhage is minimal with normal drainage
once you have removed testicles, how can you help improve drainage?Following removal of the testicles removal of excessive subcutaneous tissue and fat is indicated to improve surgical drainage.
what is the emasculatome/ general comments about it? what is the standard type?A method of bloodless castration. Use it to divide the spermatic vessels without incising the skin. A Burdizzio emasculatome is the standard (A knee bracket for the emasculatome is recommended---> this is just a little brace to put against your knee for more stability)
which method of castration does NOT have a risk of tetanus with it (why?)using the emasculatome, because the skin is not broken
describe the technique for how to use an emasculatomeThe scrotum is grasped proximal to the testicles. One spermatic cord is forced laterally so that the vessels in the spermatic cord can be divided without affecting the vessels in the median raphe of the scrotum. The emasculatome is applied and closed to crush and divide the testicular vessels-->The emasculatome is moved, one or 2 cm proximal or distal to the initial crush and closed again. The same technique is repeated on the opposite spermatic cord
which method of castration has the highest risk of tetanus?The use of elastrator bands
describe how The use of elastrator bands worksInvolves the placement of a very small, tough elastic band around the scrotum just proximal to the testicles--> Because of interruption of the blood supply the testicles slough (Tetanus is more common with this method compared to other methods of castration)
when would you do chemical castration with an irritant? how is this done? In who?This is only suggested for newborn calves. Irritants are injected directly into the testicle--> The inflammatory reaction causes atrophy of the testicle
since elastrator bands have a high risk of tetanus associated with it, how do you help minimize this problem?Suggest Toxoid 2 to 3 weeks prior to banding. 2nd Injection at the time of banding
which technique leads to the least reduction in daily gain?banding
memorize

ovine and caprine castration technique, and porcine

Question Answer
how are ovine/caprine testicles surgically removed?Removal of the bottom one third of the scrotum to gain access--> Traction to the testicle contained within the common vaginal tunics
how are older goats different from cattle, and how should you castrate them accordingly?Will sometimes go into shock if castrated using the same methods as used in cattle, which means it is Best to use sedation and local anesthetics. Consider ligation of the spermatic vessels
can you use the Emasculatome in ovine/caprine? elastrator bands?yes, can be used as in cattle
how do you check for inguinal hernias in pigs before castrating them?Check for inguinal hernias by having the handler apply pressure to the chest and abdomen when restraining the pig (Increased abdominal pressure causes protrusion of intestines through the external inguinal ring)
what is the only escribed technique for castration of porcine?sx removal of testicles
if you are going to pull the testicle on a pig in order to free it from its connective tissue attachments in the abdomen, in what direction should you pull and why?Pull caudally to prevent stretching the inguinal ring and predisposing a hernia
how do you do closed technique on a pig? (3 options)Free the testicle from the connective tissue and remove by: (1) grasping and pulling to break the supporting structures in the abdomen (Pull caudally to prevent stretching the inguinal ring and predisposing a hernia) (2) Grasp the testicle and scrape the cord until it divides (3) Grasp the testicle and cut the cord with side cutters (a tool used by an electrician to cut wire)
how do you do open technique on a pig?Continue the incision through the common vaginal tunic--> Remove the testicle by any of the above described methods (pulling/ scraping/ side cutters aka wire cutters) and then leave the tunics
do you leave or remove the tunics in pigs? mature boars?in pigs, leave the vaginal tunic, but in boars, remove as much as possible
how do you castrate a mature boar?Use general anesthesia!!! as previously described, Used closed technique and cut the entire spermatic cord including the common vaginal tunic with an emasculator (pic is.....idk this was only in the powerpoint. Use general anesthesia in adult boars)
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