Large Ani. Sx- Castration 1

wilsbach's version from 2015-11-08 20:59

intro + preoperative considerations

Question Answer
definition of castrationRemoval of testicles or actions taken to cause testicular degeneration resulting in reduction or lack of testosterone secretion
indications for castration?Remove traits from the genetic pool, Reduce Obnoxious Behavior, Reduce Management Problems (Prevent injuries that occur secondary to fighting, Allow better pasture management, Prevent unwanted pregnancies), Improve meat quality (pigs- improves flavor, better marbeling for prime beef), Arrest scent gland development in goats
**how is rate of gain and efficiency affected by castration?actually DEC IT which is a negative thing!! (So, Steers must be fed longer to have the same carcass quality) (often they will castrate and then implant steroid supplements (trenbolone acetate and estradiol) to try to combat this)
what age can castration be done at?can be done at any age, technically.
what is the main problem you get if castrating at a YOUNG age?Herniation is a greater problem at younger ages
what is the main problem you get if castrating at an OLDER age?Hemorrhage is a greater problem in older animals
when do COLTS (equine) usually get castrated? why?Most horsemen wait until the colt is around two years of age. This is because Masculine conformation has developed at this time, and Testicles are usually in the scrotum
when do BOVINE usually get castrated? why?Usually performed on animals that are less than 500 pounds. This is bc The younger the animal the less stress
what is a problem specific to bovine when being castrated early?Early castration is associated with some increase in urethral calculi problems
when are Ovine, Caprine, Porcines usually castrated?Usually performed during the first two weeks of life
which type of plant should patients NOT HAVE ACCESS to prior to sx and why?Animals should not have access to spoiled sweet sweet clover (a source of dicumarol, an anticoagulant)
who did he esp. mention should be kept in a clean, dry area after castration?pigs-- because usually they are in crap and mud
what anatomical structure must you check prior to castration?External inguinal ring should be of normal size (don't want herniations)
so you notice some problem that might complicate the castration but the owner says they don't care and just really want their animal(s) castrated. what should you do? This is elective procedure so if conditions are not right, the surgery should be delayed! If the owner wants to proceed even though there are problems. The answer should be NO (it becomes your problem as soon as you decide to do that sx)


Question Answer
should the castration be done standing or recumbent in equines?could be either!
what are some advantages of performing castration with the colt (horse) standing? (3)(1) Usually can be performed more rapidly (2) No chance of injury when the animal is going down or getting up immediately prior or after anesthesia (3) Anesthetic complications are reduced
what are some DISadvantages of performing castration with the colt (horse) standing? (3)(1) Increased chance of injury to the surgeon (2) Restraint is not as reliable (3) Surgical complications, if they occur, are more difficult to manage
what are three options of physical restraint for the STANDING horse?(1) One person holding the lead rope and a twitch is usually adequate (2) Lip chains or war bridles can be used (3) A tail tie to an overhead beam is occasionally used
(long notes only) what are some possible sedative regiments for standing equine castration?Xylazine, Acepromazine + xylazine, Acepromazine + xylazine + Talwin (Pentazocine), Xylazine + morphine , Xylazine plus butorphanol (Torbugesic), Detomidine (Dormosedan), Butorphanol, Romifidine (Sedivet)
what are two outdated methods of restraint for the recumbent horse?(1) Casting harness was applied and the animal cast and castrated without the benefit of any anesthetics (2) Succinylcholine chloride was given IV to paralyze the animal while surgery was performed (this does not provide analgesia!)
(long notes only) what are some current anesthetic regimens used for castration of the recumbent horse?Xylazine followed by ketamine (Preanesthetic use of atropine and acepromazine increases the reliability), Xylazine followed by diazapam and then ketamine, Glyceryl guaiacolate (marked sedation) and thiopental or ketamine. These combinations should maintain anesthesia for 15 to 20 minutes. to prolong anesthesia time consider--> Infusing a mixture (to effect) of glyceryl guaiacolate, xylazine, and ketamine in a L of water and then infuse for anaesthesia for up to an hour. Another option is giving another round of xylazine+ketamine at half the initial dose to extend an additional 10 min
what are the benefits or downsides to the position of the horse's recumbancy-- dorsal, left lateral, and right lateral?Dorsal recumbency is hard to maintain in most field situations. Left lateral recumbency works best for right handed surgeons. Right lateral recumbency is suggested for left handed surgeons
is castration usually done standing or recumbent in bovine?Larger animals are routinely castrated standing (Restrained in a chute with the head in a head catch and the tail held firmly over the back), Recumbent routinely used for small calves (in calf cradle, or held on the ground like in branding)
when are bovines usually castrated while standing?usually if larger animal (tail held up and over the back keeps them from kicking )
when are bovines usually castrated while recumbent?usually if a small calf- can be cast on the ground If casted, dropped on ground, when hits ground, is stunned a little then can quickly place heel of boot against achiles tendon on one leg and hold down
is anesthesia used in cattle castration?Not commonly used in North America...usually The testicle or spermatic cord can be infused with local anesthetics as in the horse. Anesthesia of the skin of the scrotum can be produced by infusing local anesthetic subcutaneously
how are ovine/caprine restraint and anesthesia done?Commonly held in an upright position with the weight born on the buttocks and the rear legs firmly flexed... Anesthetics not commonly used
is anesthesia used for porcine castration?Anesthesia not routinely used except for mature boars (although the AVMA does does not sanction castration without anesthesia for pigs over 14 days of age)
how do you restrain a pig for castration for up to weaning age?Handler holds the pig by its rear legs and cradles the body between the knees
how do you restrain larger pigs (up to 175 lbs) for castration? (but not mature boars)restrain on the ground- (long notes say:) Handler grabs a rear leg and pulls backwards quickly to pull the pig off of its feet, Then kneels with one knee on the neck and one behind the front leg and holds both of the upper legs. The surgeon kneels with one knee in the flank and castrates the pig. Or...
how do you restrain a mature boar for castration?Possible to cast manually and castrate without anesthesia-not recommended. Usually--- with anesthesia: (1) restraint with a hog holder (2) A lariat with the noose placed behind the canine teeth . Then for anesthesia: (1) Sodium pentobarbital injected into the testicle (2) Pentothal or Surital into ear vein
what is the benefit of injecting sedative directly into the boars testicle?Advantage is that the anesthetic which is not absorbed is removed during the surgery

sx technique (equine!) 1

Question Answer
what does open vs closed castration mean? (refers to what being open or closed?)Referring to removal of the testicle with or without incising the common vaginal tunic prior to removal of the testicle
describe closed castration techniquetesticle is removal by dividing (as in ligating and removing) the entire spermatic cord including the common vaginal tunic, at one time. The usual routine is to remove the testicle with an emasculator. A number of different types are available all crush the cord proximally and cut distal to the crushed area. Prior to cutting the entire cord and common vaginal tunic a ligature is sometimes placed (This closes the opening which has been made into the peritoneal cavity as well as compressing the spermatic artery)
describe an open castration techniqueUsed to describe the technique in which the common vaginal tunic is incised, the testicle is then removed and the common vaginal tunic left in place or removed following removal of the testicle. This allows for more effective compression of the blood supply prior to division by the emasculator
benefit of the open technique?incising vaginal tunic means more efficient crushing of BVs by emasculinator
why is injecting anesthetic into the parynchyma of the testicle effective?The anesthetic is carried to the pampiniform plexus and the nerves which are in close proximity are blocked (This is much easier than injecting directly into the spermatic cord, which is also a way to produce anesthesia)
the cutting edge of the emasculinator should be placed...prox or distally?distally. All emasculators are designed with the cutting edge on the same side as the nut holding the emasculator together. The emasculator should always be applied so that the nut on the emasculator is close to the testicle (nut to nut)
should the emasculinator be placed parallel or perpendicular to the long axis of the cord?perpendicular
describe Equine with the horse standing open castration techniqueSedated as previously described--> Held with a lead rope and a twitch--> Surgical preparation of the scrotum and prepuce (It takes extra time to thoroughly clean the prepuce but, if postoperative swelling becomes excessive, the time is well spent). --> Local anesthesia of the scrotum and spermatic cord (Line block the most ventral aspect of each side of the scrotum + Inject local anesthetic into the parenchyma of each testicle ) --> Liberal incision through the scrotal skin and the dartos muscle on the ventral aspect of both testicles--> Bluntly separate the common vaginal tunic from connective tissue--> Incise the common vaginal tunic slightly dorsal to the anterior pole of each testicle--> Force the testicle through the incision in the common vaginal tunic--> With a finger break through the mesorchium between the vas deferens and the testicle (When the surgery is performed on a mature stallion one should consider ligating the vascular component of the spermatic cord)--> Apply an emasculator to the vascular (cranial) component with the cutting edge of the emasculator placed distally-->The emasculator should be placed perpendicular to the long axis of the cord (There should be no tension applied to the cord when the emasculator is closed to cut the cord!) --> Following emasculation of the testicle, apply tension to the common vaginal tunic and remove as much of it as possible with the emasculator--> Be sure that the surgical incisions (in the skin) are large enough for adequate ventral drainage--> Wait until hemorrhage has stopped before leaving the premises or allowing the animal to leave
when is it common to place the emasculator twice (Which technique) and which two places?In OPEN castration, apply to Vascular elements of the cord and then Avascular elements of the cord
anatomy of horse balls Mid- open-castration
what are these? emasculators