Language Variation 10.0-10.5

blueghost's version from 2016-05-08 16:03


Question Answer
internal variation within a certain language there are different ways of expressing the same meaning
language varietyany form of language characterized by systematic features
idiolectthe specific way in which a native speaker talks; each person has their own of these
sociolinguistics study of the relationship between language varieties and social structure as well as the interrelationships among different language varieties
dialects any variety of a language spoken by a group of people that is characterized by systematic differences from other varieties of the same language in terms of structural or lexical features
accentsystematic phonological variation; every person has one
speech communitya group of people speaking the same dialect; most times the varieties spoken amount members are not pure dialects but instead are influenced by the interaction of many different factors
extralinguistic factorsfactors not based in linguistic structure that help define a speech community; ex: region, economic status, age, gender, and ethnicity
communicative isolationresults when a group of speakers forms a coherent speech community relatively isolated from speakers outside of that community
mutual intelligibility if speakers of one language variety can understand speakers of another language variety and vice versa; means that the varieties are dialects of the same language
dialect continuuma situation where, in a large number of contiguous dialects, each dialect is closely related to the next but the dialects at either end of the continuum (scale) are mutually unintelligible (not dialects of the same language)
speech stylessystematic variation in speech based on factors such as topic, setting and addressee
registersdifferent levels of speech formality
style shifting automatically adjusting from one speech style to another
jargon technical words; technical language; language variety that differs only in lexical items
sland words that are often less formal than equivalent words; found in all languages; used to keep people creative in language and to show group membership
common slangnearly neutral everyday language
in-group slangmore specialized slang of a particular group at a particular time; used to keep insiders together and to exclude outsiders
standard dialectdialect of prestige and power; often the variety of language used by political leaders, the media, and speakers from higher socioeconomic classes; serves as primary means of communication across dialects
nonstandard dialectsother dialects; not considered inferior; all dialects that are not perceived as varieties of the standard
prestigethis characteristic of language is dependent on the prestige of those who use it
prescriptive standardthe standard by which we make judgments of "right and wrong;" not linguistically founded but governed by societal opinion and the societal evaluation of speakers
hypercorrection the act of producing nonstandard forms by way of false analogy ; violations of a prescriptive rule can be seen as standard if they are used by members of the prestige group
standard american english (SAE)standard dialect in the US; defined more clearly in terms of grammar than pronunciation
bidialectal speakers who have master of two dialects-- one standard and one nonstandard
overt prestigetype of prestige associated with the standard dialect; attached to a particular variety by the community at large; defines how people should speak in order to gain status in the community
covert prestigeexists among members of nonstandard speaking communities; defines how people should speak in order to be considered part of those particular communities ; helps the continuation of nonstandard dialects by being a marker of group id
phonological level differences differences in the phonetic level that tend to be those where sound that functions the same in the linguistic systems of two varieties has some differences in its physical characteristics ; every utterance produced is somewhat different
phonological variation different varieties can have different phonological rules; speakers of two varieties categorize words differently; differ in what sequences of sounds the language variety allows
non-rhotic sequences of vowel-/r/-consonant or vowel-/r/-word boundary are not promitted
morphological variationlooks at the distribution of morphemes in two varieties; using completely different morphemes for the same function in two varieties
syntactic variationvariation in how words are combined; differences in how sentences are put together
lexical variationdifferences in the words people use to mean the same thing or refer to the same object; differences in what the same word means/refers to; choice of words you use may depend on the register or style of speech in which you are talking
regional variationvariation based on geographical boundaries
dialectologistspeople who study regional dialects
isoglosseslines on a map that mark where a particular linguistic form is used; often the result of dialectologist field work
bundle of isoglosseswhen many isoglosses surround the same region or separate the same group of speakers; indicates that the speech of a particular group s different in a number of ways from that of the other groups around it
double modalusing two modals in a verb phrase to show the high degree of tentativeness (might could)
multiple negationmultiple markers are used to negate a sentence
a-prefixingadding a- in front of a verb (a-running)
social dialectsfactors including class, age, gender, and ethnicity that are associated with the social group to which speakers belong
discourse/conversational analysisrecording a long conversation to see how particular identities are established in the course of the convo

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