Language Change 13.0-13.7

blueghost's version from 2016-05-08 17:31


Question Answer
familiesthe history of language and language groups, which are also called this
synchronicanalysis of a language at a particular point in time; looking at the language's morphemes, or language's syntactic rules at that time
diachronicstudying language development across time
historical linguisticsconcerned with language change; kinds of changes and why; what kinds of changes do NOT occur and why not
proto-indo-European (PIE)a single ancestor language
causes of language changeloss of homogeneity due to geographical divisions; external factors; languages in contact with each other begin to show similarities
language change bad?neither good nor bad; simply a fact that it occurs
genetically related languagethe two languages were the same language at one point but split into two different varieties over time
relatedness hypothesis when two languages were originally one but underwent enough changes that they could now be considered separate languages
cognateswords with similar forms and meanings across languages
protolanguagean earlier, common language from which similar languages may be decended
family tree theoryassumes that speech sounds change in regular, recognizable ways and that because of this, phonological similarities among languages may be due to a genetic relationship among those languages
wave theoryrepresents language relationships; recognizes the gradual spread of change throughout a dialect, language or group of languages
sound changethe most widely studied aspect of language change; often impossible to understand changes in other areas of the language without studying this; may also affect a language's morphology, syntax, and semantics; provided a basis for the study of language relationships and the reconstruction of the parent (proto) languages; may result when a phonological process is introduced into a language where it did not formerly occur
what is needed for sound change to occurthe basic form of a word must be permanently altered in ALL contexts; it is closely related to and stems from phonetic and phonological variations; change has occurred when speakers no longer have a choice between variants because one has taken over
phonetic change change in pronunciation of an allophone that has no effect on the phonological system of the language; affects only the PRONUNCIATION of words
phonological changechanges the phonological system in some way, by addition or loss of a phoneme or by a change in the distribution of allophones
regularity of sound changewith sound change, it will almost always turn out to be completely regular meaning that every instance of the sound will undergo the change; gradual process; only does not occur if it did not finish spreading and usually for social reasons
unconditioned sound changewhen something changes sound no matter where it appears; sound change applies wherever the sound appears
conditioned sound changewhen a sound changes because of the influence of neighboring sounds; changes only when the sound appears in a particular environment
assimilationsituation in which one sound becomes more like another sound
dissimilationsituation in which two similar sounds become less like one another
deletionwhen a sound is no longer pronounced; spelling stays the same but a sound change has occurred
insertionwhen a sound is added to the pronunciation of a word;
monophthongizationchange from a diphthong (a complex vowel sound consisting of two vowel sounds) to a simple vowel sound called a monophthong; unconditioned
diphthonga complex vowel sound consisting of two vowel sounds
monophtonga simple vowel sound
diphthongization a change from a simple vowel to a complex one;
metathesischange in the order of sounds;
raising raising the height of the tongue in the production of vowels; often conditioned but can be unconditioned
loweringlowering the height of the tongue in the production of vowels
backing and frontingalterations in the frontness or backness of the tongue when producing vowels
morphological changethe morphological structure of the word has changed; can include the introduction of new words or morphological processes; often at the heart of synchronic variation because it does not occur instantaneously--> period of competition between the old and new form
proportional analogy morphological change that can be schematized as a four part proportion; involves the creation of a new inflected/derived form
analogy/ anological changeinfluence of one form or set of forms over another; generally introduces regularity
paradigmset of inflectionally related forms
paradigm levelingtype of analogical change that takes place inside a paradigm; eliminates irregularity among morphologically related forms
back formationinvolves the creation of a new stem form; often preceded by re-analysis
folk etymologyobscure morphemes are reanalyzed in terms of more familiar morphemes; occurs most often in cases where the morphological makeup of a word is obscure to speakers
both proportional analogy and paradigm leveling are...characterized by the elimination of irregularities from morphological subsystem of a language
back formation and folk etymology are....characterized by the involvement of re-analysis of unfamiliar morphemes in ways that make them more accessible to speakers
acronymsformed by taking the initial sounds (or letters) of the words of a phrase and uniting them into a combo that is itself pronounceable as a separate word
blendscombinations of the parts of two words, usually the beginning of one and the end of another (brunch)
clippinga way of shortening words without paying attention to the derivational morphology of the word or related words (taxi and cab from taxi cab and exam from examination)
coinageswords that are created without using any other methods and without employing any other word or word parts already in existence; completely original words
conversionsnew words created simply by shifting the part of speech of a word to another part of speech without changing the form of the word; also called functional shift
eponymswords that are named for persons someone connected with them (often places, inventions, activities, etc)
syntactic changechange in the organization of words and morphemes into phrases and sentences; concerned with grammar; often specific to the syntactic properties of particular words
changes in word ordergeneralization about the placement of words has changed (ex: noun phrases and asking questions)
changes in co-occurence the position in a sentence tells us whether something is a subject or object not the form of the word
causes of syntactic changeoften linked with other changes in word order; often system-wide change in the ordering of elements that is realized in different ways in different syntactic environments; new patterns often compete with old patters; social factors often play a role in which pattern holds out
semantic changea shift in the set of appropriate contexts for a word's use
referentsthe set of objects a word refers to
extensionsoccur when the set of appropriate contexts or referents for a word increases; frequently the result of generalizing from the specific case to the class of which the specific case is a member
metaphorical extension the meaning of words become less narrow; meaning of a word is extended to include an object or concept that is like the original referent in some metaphorical sense rather than literal sense
reductionswhen the set of appropriate contexts or referents for a word decreases; relatively less common than extensions of meaning
elevationswhen a word takes on somewhat grander or more positive connotations over time
degradationswhen a word acquires more pejorative meaning over time
interactions of semantic changechanges are often accompanied by or result in semantic changes in another word; system as a whole remains balanced despite individual changes within it
internal reconstructionthe analysis of data from a single language to make hypotheses about the language's history
comparative reconstructionsystematic comparison of multiple related languages to hypothesize about the common protolanguage they descended from
alternationthe creation of alternate pronunciations for the same morpheme; an effect of conditioned sound change
sound correspondence two or more languages that are related will show similar sounds because of the regularity of sound change
showing a reconstructed/protoform use an asterisk to show the form
natural sound changes--> common sound changesvoiceless--> voiced; stops--> fricatives; consonants --> palatalized before front vowels; consonants --> voiceless at the end of words; difficult consonant clusters are simplified; oral vowels--> nasalized before nasals; [h] deletes between vowels; clusters of vowels are broken up with consonants
total correspondencewhen all the languages exhibit the same sound in some position in a cognate set, that sound can be reconstructed
occam's razor given a pair of possible analyses, prefer the one that is simpler overall ; also which is the most common in the cognate set

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