Language and Culture 11.0-11.5

blueghost's version from 2016-05-08 18:05


Question Answer
linguistic anthropologythe study of the relationship between language and culture; interested in social organization and cultural meaning as they are reflected in the structure, lexicon, and conversations of a language
kinship termsterminology we use to categorize people; reflects cultural ideas we have about social organization; helps us see what characteristics the speakers value/consider relevant to social organization
communicative competencethe ability to interact and communicate according to cultural norms
politenessaspect of communicative competence; knowing what strategies of this to use when depending on context and the person being addressed
speaker roles aspect of communicative competence; interactional expectations change with the setting and the role the speaker takes
turn-taking rulesaspect of communicative competence; length of wait before talking is part of this and varies across cultures
tag questionsused in turn-taking rules; utterances that begin with a statement and end with a question about the truth of the statement; way of getting a response to a general statement
adjacency pairspart of turn-takng rules; pairs of adjacent utterances produced by two different speakers in which the first utterance provokes the hear to respond with the second utterance
signslanguage is thought of as a system of these; a system of form-meaning pairs
signifierthe form or sound patter of a word
referentthe object to which a word refers
symbola sign that has arbitrary relationship between the signifier and its referent and thus relies on convention to signify meaning
icona sign whose signifier actually resembles or imitates its referent in some direct way
indexa kind of sign that has a more complicated relationship between the signifier and the referent; relationship between the two is generally not a direct one but it is also not arbitrary; relationship develops over time
linguistic relativityargues that language affects thought (weak version)
linguistic determinismargues that language determines thought; speakers can think of things only in the way that their language expresses them; argues that thought and language are identical and it is not possible to engage in any rational thinking without using language to do so
Whorf hypothesis or the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesisthe language that someone speaks affects how he perceives the world
power in languagepower expressed by language is defined by those who use it rather than by any inherent properties of the language
power relationshipscan be established through means that use every level of linguistic structure
power in society the adoption of official languages; government may determine when and how people may use language;
politenessnormative/expected linguistics and extra-linguistic strategies culturally agreed to be interactionally appropriate for a given situation
indirectnessusing indirect speech acts to be more polite and avoid asking directly and bluntly ; this can differ across languages
honorifics grammatical markers of respect and deference that are found in many languages
T/V Distinctionused in some languages as a simpler system of honorifics; distinguishing second person pronouns in terms of social distance / intimacy
face theoryBrown and Levinson's idea that one thinks about ones self image when acting
positive faceone's desire to be approved of by others
negative faceone's desire not to be bothered or have one's independence infringed upong
face-threatening acts (FTAs) speech acts that may threaten one's postive or negative face
bald on-record FTAsthe absence of a politeness or mitigation strategy
postive politenessoriented towards positive face wants; speaker wants to show he likes the addressee
negative politenessoriented toward the hearer's desire to be left alone; expresses speaker's restraint and avoidance of imposing on the heare
off-record FTAstrategies that use indirect speech acts to avoid making any explicit or unequivocal imposition on the hearer
ethnographydescription of everyday life in a community
participant observationobserving within a community in order to understand how and why people do the things they do on a daily basis
passive participation passively watching how everyday life unfolds without partaking in activities ; attempt to cause the least disturbance possible; can give more objective observations
complete participationactively participating in the community; attempting to see how the community functions from the pov of a local ; subjective observations as opposed to objective
eticdescription from an outsider's point of view; does not consider the local significant of certain actions
emicdescription from an insider view that taking into account the meaning of the event

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