Language Analysis 2 (part 2)

nwestyn's version from 2015-12-06 11:49

Section 1

Question Answer
Mental LexiconThe representation of words, morphemes, and lexemes in the mind
Lexical SemanticsThe study of the meaning of lexemes
HomographSame Spelling, Different Meaning.
HomophonesSame Pronunciation, Different Meaning.
SynonymySame or very similar meanings but different words (i.e. lawyer vs attorney
AntonymyOpposite meanings (i.e. dead vs alive)

Section 2

Question Answer
Simple AntonymsEither or, non-gradable (i.e. dead vs alive
Gradable AntonymsOpposite ends of a scale (i.e. hot vs cold)
ReversesOpposite movements or processes, usually verbs (i.e. push vs pull)
ConversesAlternative viewpoints, usually adjectives or nouns (i.e. above vs below)

Section 3

Question Answer
TaxonomyA classification system, typically with a hierarchical structure
Taxonomic SistersLexemes that occur at the same level in a taxonomy (i.e red and blue)
HyponymyA relation of inclusion between lexemes (i.e. crimson and scarlet are hyponyms of red [but not colour])
SuperordinateOver arching element (i.e. red is superordinate of crimson and scarlet)
MeronymyA part-whole relation between lexemes (i.e. fingers are part of hand)
Member-collectionRelation between a lexeme for a unit and it's collection (i.e. bird vs flock)
Portion-massRelation between a mass noun and its unit of measurement/ division (i.e. drop of water)

Section 4

Question Answer
Semantic RoleThe role played by each noun phrase in relation to the verb in a sentence
Active VoiceThe subject (first noun phrase) is the agent
Passive VoiceThe subject (first noun phrase) is the patient


Question Answer
Intransitive VerbNo object being acted upon (i.e. run)
Transitive VerbAn object being acted upon (i.e. hit)
Ditransitive VerbThree arguments needed (i.e. put)

Section 5

Question Answer
AgentInitiator of an action (usually living beings)
PatientThe entity upon which some action is performed, often resulting in a change of state
ThemeThe entity whose location is described/ changed
ExperiencerThe entity who is aware of an action or state but is not in control.
BeneficiaryThe entity for whose benefit some action was performed
InstrumentThe means by which some action is performed
LocationThe place in which some action is performed or some entity is situated
GoalThe entity towards which something moves as a result of some action
SourceThe entity from which something moves as a result of some action
ActorUnintentional initiator of an action

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