Language Analysis 2 (part 1)

nwestyn's version from 2015-12-05 17:56

Section 1

Question Answer
WordA linguistic element that can be used on its own and whose position is not completely fixed in relation to other elements(a free form)
Orthographic wordHow it appears in written language (string of letters with a space either side)
Phonological wordThe sounds of various words
LexemeMinimal meaningful unit. (Dictionary entry) i.e. Happy (Happier, Happily, ...)
HomonymySame word form, different meaning
PolysemySame word form, related meaning
Open word classesAble to add new words to them.
Closed word classesCannot add new words to them (function words)

Section 2

Question Answer
Concrete NounName of a person, place or thing (Countable)
Abstract NounName of an abstract identity (Countable)
(Lexical) VerbsWord for a state or action
AdjectivesDescribes or classifies a noun (gradable)
AdverbsWords that modify the meaning of a verb, adjective, sentence, or other adverb

Section 3

Question Answer
DeterminersWord that always precedes a noun (i.e. the)
PronounsWords that occur in place of a noun (i.e. she)
Auxiliary VerbsVerbs that combine with other verbs (i.e. be)
PrepositionWord that precedes a determiner, noun or pronoun (i.e. in)
ConjuctionWord that links, clauses, phrases or words
NegativeThe word "not"

Section 4

Question Answer
MorphologyThe study of the structure of words
MorphemeThe smallest unit of meaning (i.e. Walk-er-s)
Affixes (Bound Morphemes)Morphemes that aren't their own word (i.e. er, s, de)
Free Morphemes (Root)A word in it's own right (i.e. walk, ball, etc.)
Complex WordMore than one morpheme


Question Answer
PrefixAffix before the root (i.e. re-boil)
SuffixAffix after the root (i.e. boil-ed)
InfixAffix in the middle of the root (not common in English)


Question Answer
Inflectional MorphemesSame lexeme, different word forms (i.e. house vs houses)
Derivational MorphemesDifferent lexeme and word form (i.e. house vs rehouse)
BlendsNew words made from two contributory words (i.e. brunch)
ClippingWords formed by removing syllables from a polysyllabic word (Lunch vs Luncheon)
ReduplicationRepetition of part or all of a morpheme (i.e. mish-mash)

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