Language Acquisition 8.0-8.5

blueghost's version from 2016-05-08 14:46


Question Answer
innateness hypothesishumans are genetically predisposed to acquire and use language
linguistic universalsbasic features shared by all languages (like the concepts of nouns and verbs)
universal grammarinborn set of structural characteristics shared by all languages; exact contents are not known
critical periodLenneberg; period of time in an indiv's life during which behaviour (in this case language) must be acquired; acquisition will fail if attempted before or after this period
critical period for language acquisitionfrom birth to approximately the onset of puberty
evidence for the critical period of acquisitioncomparing the acquisition of second language in teenagers and adults--> more difficulty learning; neglected children and feral children; but the issue is that such situations also bring trauma and that could influence the acquiring of language properly
homesign gesturescommunicative gestures that are invented by deaf children and people with whom they interact in cases where signed language is not available
second language acquisitionseems to be a steady decline in how well one can learn a second language relating to age; often learning later means having an accent; syntactic and other rules may be difficult to master; methods of teaching can influence
critical language period partial existencemay exist for certain aspects of language (syntax in first language and phonology in second language) but not for others
imitation theorychildren learn language by listening to the speech around them and reproducing what they hear; consists of memorizing words and sentences of some language ; explains little else abotu language acquisition (children's speech is not grammatically correct like the speech they probably were trying to reproduce) ; cannot account for the production and understanding of new sentences
reinforcement theorychildren learn to speak like adults because they are praised, rewarded, or otherwise reinforced when they use the correct forms and corrected when they do not; flawed--> often the corrections do not occur or fail
active construction of grammar theorymost influential theory of language acquisition; holds that children invent grammar rules themselves; assumes the ability to develop rules is innate but actual rules are based on the speech children hear
connectionist thoerieslearning language by creating neural connections in the brain; developed through exposure to and use of language;; learns associations between words, meanings, sound sequences, etc; connections have different strength that are dependent on input frequency; use statistical info from linguistic input instead of developing abstract rules
social interaction theorylanguage is acquired through social interaction (namely with older individuals); children and language environment are seen as dynamic system; believe that children must develop rules and that they have a predisposition to learn language; emphasis on social interactions and kind of input received
identifying soundshigh amplitude sucking (HAS); conditioned head-turn procedure (HT); used in figuring out what infants can hear and how they process what they hear
producing soundsbabies need to learn articulatory gestures and timing relationships between these gestures
babblingproducing sequences of vowels and consonants or hand movements when acquiring spoken or signed language
repeated/canonical babblingstarts at 7-10months; repetition of the same syllables helps infant practice sequence of consonant and vowel sounds
variegated babblingbabbling in which the infant strings together different syllables as opposed to the same one
holophrastic stageinfants producing single words in isolation ; limited to production of one word but understand and probably intend the meaning of more than a single word
holophrasea one-word sentence
two-word stagetwo words used to produce and express a semantic relationship; structure of utterances is determined by semantic relationships not syntactic ones as adults use; ex: baby sleep, kick ball, sit chair
telegraphic speechyoung children's' speech because of the lack of function words (prepositions, auxiliary verbs, determiners, and inflectional affixes)
overgeneralizationapplied the rules (such as an s for plural) where they do not occur grammatically
negativesfirst --> simply put no in front of the sentence; next--> but no in between the subject and verb of the sentence
questionsat first can only change the intonation of voice to ask questions; later learn more grammatical ways of asking
complexive conceptwhen a child associated different characteristics with the meaning of a word on successive uses, creating a set of objects that do not have any particularly unifying characteristics ; serve to form loose bonds between items associated with experience
overextensionextending a word meaning beyond that typically used by adults
underextensionapplication of a word to a smaller number of objects than is appropriate for mature adult speech
relational termwords that require the understanding of absolute size of the object in question and its position on a scale of similar objects; relatively complex concept
deictic expressionswords referring to personal, temporal, or spatial aspects of an utterance and whose meaning depends on the context in which the word is used
child-directed/infant-directed speecha specially tailored model of language use, adjusted to fit what children appear to understand
attention gettersused to tell children which utterances are addressed to them and which they ought to be listening to; names and exclamations; modulations in voice pitch; gestures; whispering into ear
attention holdersused to keep children focused; names and exclamations; modulations in voice pitch; gestures; whispering in ear
"here and now"adults typically talk to children about what is present and in the here and now
"baby talk"words that are considered appropriate in talking to only very young children; provide another signal that utterance is addressed to a child
"level of utility"adults select some words that are very frequent in adult-to-adult speech when speaking with the child; the judgement that one word is more likely to be useful than another in the child's own utterances
omission of word endings/function wordsleaving out function words and word endings to make what they are saying more simple
conversational turnsswitching/taking turns being the speaker and listener in a convo
making correctionsadults focus on correcting for what is true but not necessarily to make it grammatical; focus on pronunciation in order to make sure listener can understand; concerned primarily with the ability to communicate with a listener; grammar typically goes uncorrected
manner of speaking to children/ way of speakingusing short, simple sentences; using higher pitch of voice; slowing down speech; repeating themselves frequently--> done in order to make sure the child can attend to and understand what the adults say
is child directed speech necessary?depends on how immediate language is in the culture; "here and now" nature of the speech children are exposed to --> whether through child-directed speech or being "shown" how to use language in a context seems to influence whether it is needed
bilingualsomeone who is able to hold a conversation with monolingual speakers of two different languages
simultaneous bilingualismlearning more than one language from birth
sequential bilingualismbegin learning their second language as young children
second-language acquisitionlearning a second language later in life, not as a child
language mixing/code switchingfeature of bilingual children's speech; using more than one language in a convo or even within a phrase
issues with bilingual raising?may lag behind peers with vocab in one of the languages but catch up by puberty; some concepts may be easier to express in one language than the other; advantages include ability to communicate in two different languages if growing up in positive social environment
foreign accentresult of second-language acquisition; the phonological system is not learned as well as for native speakers
fossilizationnon-native forms can become fixed and not change regardless of how many years they have been instructed
factors influencing second-language acquisition successlearner's native language and its relation to the second language; transfer; age, working memory, motivation, and context; amount of exposure to the second language
transferthe role a native language plays in influencing the learning of a second language; can be positive or negative and inhibit or facilitate learning of a second language

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