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Lab Values & Significance

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claudiavega's version from 2016-08-31 14:55

Section 1

Question Answer
Sodium 135-145 mEq/L: Result of balance between dietary intake and renal excretion. Major determinant of extracellular osmolality.
Potassium 3.5-5.1: Needed for smooth/skeletal/cardiac muscle contraction.
Chloride 98-107 mEq/L: Moves with Sodium and affects water balance, works as a buffer with bicarb in acidosis
serum C02 22-29 mEq/L: Indirect measure of bicarb, rough guide of acid-base balance
Ca+ 8.6-10 mg/dL: Evaluates parathyroid function and calcium metabolism. Half exists in its free (ionized) form, the rest is bound to albumin so directly related to albumin level—artificially low if albumin is low.
Mg+ 1.6-2.6 mg/dL: Critical for nearly all metabolic processes—imp. in phosphorylation of ATP.
Phos 2.7-4.5 mg/dL: Phosphorus is a mineral the body needs to build strong bones and teeth. It is important for nerve signaling and muscle contraction.
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Section 2

Question Answer
Ca+8.6-10 mg/dL: Evaluates parathyroid function and calcium metabolism. Half exists in its free (ionized) form, the rest is bound to albumin so directly related to albumin level—artificially low if albumin is low.
PTTPTT control Control 20-36 sec, aPTT 30-40 sec: (on heparin keep between 1.5-2.5x of control) to determine effective anticoagulation
PT9.5-11.8 ave.: Keep between 1.5-2x of control) to determine effective anticoagulation of Coumadin
INRKeep between 2-3 (standard Coumadin therapy), 3-4.5 (high dose Coumadin therapy), >30 Critical. Similar to PT but standardized across all lab systems
FBS (Fasting blood sugar)70-110 mg/dL: Fast ≥8 hours, but less than 16 hrs (or result could be falsely high). Dx DM > 125 x 2
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Section 3

Question Answer
Hgb (Hemoglobin) Female 12-15 gm/dL male 14-16.5 g/dL: Carries 02/C02 molecules
Hct (Hematocrit)Female 35-47% male 42-52%: %of the RBCs in the total blood volume (plasma/WBC/plts). 3x>Hb. Hemodilution and dehydration may affect.
Plt (Platelet Count) 150,000-400,000 cells/µL: Clotting indicator.
IX. WBC (Total) 4500-11,000 cells/mm3: Inflammation, infection parameter
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Section 4

Question Answer
AST/SGOT 5-37: Enzyme that reflects heart and liver damage/disease
ALT/SGPT 13-59: Enzyme found predominantly in the liver that is released with injury. Useful in diagnosing viral hepatitis
ALP (alkaline phosphatase) 44-147 King-Armstrong units/dL: Injury marker of liver, bile ducts, bone
Ammonia 35-65 mcg/dL: By prod of protein catabolism. Most comes from gut bacteria and goes to liver for conversion to BUN.
Bilirubin Direct 0-0.3 mg/dL(conjugated) Indirect 0.1-1 mg/dL (unconjugated) Total <1.5 mg/dL
Albumin 3.4-5 g/dL: Blood protein made in the liver. LFT parameter, holds vascular osmotic pressure.
Protein 6-8 gm/dL: Measures albumin and globulin, proteins made in the liver
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Section 5

Question Answer
Amylase 25-151 units/L: Pancreatic enzyme released into the duodenum that catabolizes CHO. Pancreatic injury/duct obstruction causes release into the bloodstream.
Lipase 10-140 units/L (VA value):
TSH 0.2-5.4 microunits/ml: Secreted in response to ↓T3 T4/diff dx between primary and secondary hypothyroidism. Monitors thyroid replacement therapy.
T3 (Prentice Hall ) 80-200 ng/dL: Measures thyroid function. Not specific enough to measure hypothyroidism.
Thyroxine (total T4)5-12 mcg/dL: Useful as a differential dx between hyper and hypo thyroidism.
Thyroxine, (free T4) 0.8-2.4 mg/dL: Not affected by thyroid binding globulin so better reflection of thyroid hormonal status than total T4.
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Section 6

Question Answer
CK 26-174 units/L: Enzyme in cardiac/skel/brain muscle that is released by injury
CKMB 0-5% of total CK value: ↑4-6 hr after cardiac damage
LDH (5 fractionates) 140-280 units/L: Enzyme in the cells of many body tissues released during injury, so not a specific indicator of disease of any one organ.
Myoglobin <90 mcg/L (normal): Oxygen binding protein found in cardiac and skeletal muscle.↑ 3 hrs after cardiac injury or death. More sensitive than CPK but dz/injury of the skeletal muscles can also cause elevation.
Troponin I <0.6 ng/ml normal >1.5 ng/ml=MI: Cardiac specific protein involved with contraction. ↑3 hr after MI, normal in 9-10 days
Troponin T >0.1-0.2 ng/ml=MI:Cardiac specific protein involved with contraction. ↑3 hr after MI, normal in 10-14 days
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Section 7

Question Answer
Cholesterol 140-199 mg/dL: Main lipid associated with arteriosclerotic vascular disease. (risk for CAHD, CVA, PVD). Required for the production of steroids, sex hormones, bile acids, cellular membranes.
HDLs 30-70 mg/dL: Transports cholesterol, triglycerides. “Good” cholesterol, heart protective >60, removes cholesterol from the tissues and returns to the liver for excretion
LDLs <130 mg/dL: “Bad” cholesterol, can deposit cholesterol into the lining of the blood vessels causing CV/PVD.
Triglycerides (VLDL) <200 mg/dL: Produced in the liver, storage source for energy—in excess, deposits in the fatty tissues, risk factor for CV disease and PVD
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Section 8