Lab Practical Two

clairebear2018's version from 2018-05-01 05:38

Section 1

Question Answer
Catalysta substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself undergoing any permanent chemical change
Enzymea substance produced by a living organism that acts as catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction
Denatureddestroy the characteristic properties of a protein or other biological macromolecule by heat, acidity or other effects that disrupt its molecular conformation
Renaturationthe conversation of denatured protein or nucleic acid to its native configuration
Substrate a substance or layer that underlies something, or on which some process occurs, in particular
Productsubstance resulting from a chemical reaction
Active Sitea region or an enzyme that binds to a protein or other substance during a reaction
Lactosea sugar present in milk, a disaccharide containing glucose and galactose units
Disaccharide any of a class of sugars whose molecules contain two monosaccharide residues
Monosaccharideany of the class of sugars that cannot be hydrolyzed to give a simpler sugar
Glucosea simple sugar that is an important energy source in living organisms and is a component of many carbohydrates
Aerobic Respiration the process of producing cellular energy involving oxygen
Photosynthesisthe process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water; generally involves the green pigment chlorophyll and generates oxygen as a byproduct
Electron Transport Systemthe site of oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotes, the NADH and succinate generated in the citric acid cycle are oxidized, providing energy to power ATP synthase
Photoautotrophorganisms that carry out photosynthesis
Chemoheterotrophorganisms that obtain energy by the oxidization of electron donors in their environments
Chloroplasta plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place

Section 2

Question Answer
Pigmentthe natural coloring matter of animal or plant tissue
Fluorecence the visible or invisible radiation emitted by certain substances as a result of incident radiation of a shorter wavelength such as x-rays or ultraviolet light
Absorption Spectraa spectrum of electromagnetic radiation transmitted through a substance, showing dark lines or bands due to absorption of specific wavelength
Chlorophylla green pigment, present in all green plants and in cyanobacteria
Carotenean orange or red plant pigment found in carrots and many other plant structures
Xanthophylla yellow or brown carotenoid plant pigment that causes the autumn colors of leaves
Spectroscopean apparatus for producing and recording spectra for examination
Paper Chromatographyused to separate colored chemicals or substances
Absorbancea measure of the capacity of a substance to absorb light of a specified wavelength, it is equal to the logarithm of the reciprocal of the transmittance
Wavelengththe distance between successive crests of a wave, especially points in a sound wave or electromagnetic wave
Rf Numberthe ratio of the distance moved by the solutes and distance moved by the solvent
Polaritythe relative orientation of poles, the direction of a magnetic or electric field
DNAa self replacing material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes
Restriction Enzymean enzyme produced chiefly by certain bacteria
Restriction Fragmenta fragment of a DNA molecule that has been cleaved by a restriction enzyme
Plasmida genetic structure in a cell that can replicate independently of the chromosomes, typically in a small circular strand of DNA strand in the cytoplasm of a bacterium or protozoan
DNA Laddera molecular weight size marker, also referred to as a protein ladder, is a set of standards that are used to identify the approximate size of a mole run a gel during electrophorosis

Section 3

Question Answer
Cytoplasmic Streamingthe directed flow of cytosol and organelles around the fungal and plant cells
Ciliaorganelle found in eukaryotic cells
Pseudopodiaa temporary protrusion of the surface of an amoeboid cell for movement and feeding
Thylakoidflattened sacs inside a chloroplast, bounded by pigmented membranes on which the light reactions of photosynthesis takes place
Brownian Movementrandom motion of particles suspended in a fluid resulting from their collision with the fast moving molecules in the fluid
Diffusionthe spreading of something more widely
Osmosisa process by which molecules of a solvent tend to pass through a semipermiable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated one
Hypotonichaving reduced pressure or tone
Hypertonicthe concentration of solutes is greater outside the cell than inside the cell
Isotonicdenoting to or relating a solution having the same osmotic pressure as some other solution
Crenationcontraction of a call after exposure to a hyper tonic solution
Plasmolysiscontraction of the protoplast of a plant cell as a result of loss of water from the cell
Concentration Gradiantthe process of particles moving through a solution or gas from an area with a higher number of particles to an area with a lower number of particles
Solventable to dissolve other substances
Solutethe minor component in a solution, dissolved in the solvent
Solutiona liquid mixture in which the minor component is uniformly distributed within the major component