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Lab Phonetics

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fungible's version from 2017-10-26 00:47

General

Question Answer
What are the arytenoids?Pyramid-shared cartilages attached to the larger cricoid cartilage
What happens during vocal fold abduction?The posterior cricoarytenoid muscles pull the vocal folds apart by rotating the arytenoids. The glottal opening is widened at the back—the front is fixed.
What happens during vocal fold adduction?The lateral cricoarytenoid muscles pull the vocal folds together. The transverse arytenoid muscle and oblique arytenoid muscle can pull the vocal folds completely closed.
What qualities/environment can increase F0 of a vowel?Vowel is higher; vowel is more front; voiceless neighboring consonant
Why does a voiceless neighboring consonant increase F0 of a vowel?Voiceless sounds require more tension in the vocal folds, which increases F0.
What can result in a spectrum without identifiable harmonic peaks?Voiceless sounds; high degree of jitter; F0 decreases substantially within the selection
What is jitter?Cycle-to-cycle difference in F0
What is shimmer?Cycle-to-cycle difference in intensity
What happens when there is a constriction at a velocity node?Increases frequency of resonance
What sounds produce anti-formants?Nasals (mouth and sinuses are side cavities); laterals (the tongue forms a small side cavity, so high anti formants at ~2000 Hz)
What is Nyquist frequency?Half the sampling rate
What is the association between spectral tilt and stress?In stressed syllables, higher frequencies are strengthened → spectral tilt has flatter or more negative values
Where do vocal fold attach?They are attached posteriorly to the arytenoid cartilages, and anteriorly to the thyroid cartilage.
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Obstruents

Question Answer
Why does /s/ have higher frequencies than /ʃ/?Resonant frequencies for fricatives are defined by the front cavity, in which the turbulence is created. There are higher frequencies in shorter cavities.
Why do /f/ and /θ/ have no clear peak?Fricatives with labial or interdental constrictions have essentially no front cavity.
What is center of gravity?The frequency with an equal in energy above and below it.
What is dispersion?How spread out the energy is ('standard deviation' in Praat)
Why do voiced fricatives sometimes become glides?Fricatives require high velocity airflow, but voicing reduces pressure, so there is less turbulence, resulting in glides.
How does place affect VOT?Bilabials have lowest VOT; velars/uvulars the greatest.
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Phonation

Question Answer
When is second harmonic higher than the first?Creaky voice; falsetto
What do the vocal folds do during modal voice?Regular vibration along full length of the vocal folds
Harmonics for modal voice?Intensity of harmonics generally shallowly decreasing
What do the vocal folds do during creaky voice?Vocal folds held close together at the back; loose at the front
Harmonics for creaky voice?Higher intensity of H2 than H1 (spectral tilt steeply rising)
What do the vocal folds do during breathy voice?Vocal folds held close enough together to vibrate, but not close enough to fully close
Harmonics for breathy voice?Lower intensity of H2 than H1 (spectral tilt steeply decreasing)
Which has more aperiodic noise: whispering or voiceless sounds?Whispering
What do the vocal folds do during whispering?No vocal fold vibration; vocal folds held partially open, at the back
What do the vocal folds do during falsetto?Vocal folds tensed so only the internal upper edges can vibrate
Harmonics for falsetto?Higher intensity of H2 than H1 (spectral tilt is steeply increasing)
What phonation types increase jitter?Creaky and falsetto (but NOT breathiness)
Types of phonation that produce a high noise-to-harmonic ratio:Breathy voice; falsetto; whisper
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