LA Musculoskeletal 1

britt611's version from 2017-01-31 04:50

Section 1

Question Answer
how much bone loss is needed to detect lysis30-50%
What are standard radiographic projections of the carpus/trasus and distal?DP, LM, obliques
what are standard radiographic projections proximal to carpus/tarsusCr.Ca., LM, obliques
which structure is always in the direction of the beam?the most superimposition
What are you looking at in a dorsopalmar view?looking for lesions along the lateral and medial (due to dorsal and palmar being superimposed)
What are you looking for in a lateromedial view?looking for lesions along the dorsal/palmar surfaces- due to lateral and medial structures being superimposed
What are the standard radiographic projections for large animals?DP, LM, DMPL, DLPM
which view is important when assessing chip fracture fragments?flexed lateromedial
what are you looking at in a skyline projection?the beam skims the surface- it remains along the dorsal or palmar/planter surfaces-- does NOT go through the joint
what view is best for assessing the navicular bone?skyline projection (palmaroproximal to palmarodistal)
what view do you see in a skyline projection of the carpus?dorsoproximal to dorsodistal oblique
what does periarticular mean?edges of the articular surfaces
what are the roentgen signs?size, shape,number, location, margins, opacity

Section 2

Question Answer
what are the 3 O'sosteomyelitis, osteochrondrosis, osteoarthrosis
what is the most fundamentaly important concept in all of MS imaging?differentiating between aggressive and nonagressive lesions
Why do we care if a lesion is aggressive?alter prognosis, often required intervention
what are your differential diagnoses for an aggressive lesion?infection (osteomyelitis) bacterial or fungal, neoplasia
infections are more common in _____ which neoplasia is more common in _____LA, SA
what are features of non-aggressive bone lesionswell defined margins (callus), periarticular bone proliferation (osteophytes), entheosphytes (joint capsule or ligament/tendon attachment)
what are periarticular bony proliferationsosteophytes
where do you normally see enthesophytes?joint capsule or ligament/tendon attachment
what is the most common non aggressive bone lesion?osteoarthrosis
what are features of an aggressive bone lesion?cortical destruction (lysis), periosteal proliferation, long zone of transition (poorly defined margins), Can also see = soft tissue swelling and rapid progression
what is the most common aggressive bone lesionosteomyelitis

Section 3

Question Answer
What is osteomyelitis?aggressive bone lesion
how is osteomyelitis characterized?cortical destruction (lysis), periosteal proliferation, long zone of transition (poorly defined margins), Can also see = soft tissue swelling and rapid progression
what is the signlment of osteomyelitis?young animals- usually spread hematogenous
how is osteomyelitis spead?hematogeneous
what are some causes of osteomyelitis?concurrent infection (pneumonia, collitis, umbilical abscess) that speads hematogenous- failure of passive transfer
define osteoarthrosis?non inflammaotry joint disease
what are other names of osteoarthrosis?osteoarthritis, DJD
in horses what joints are commonly effected by osteoarthrosis?distal joints, ess. the distal tarsal joint and digit (fetlock, pastern, coffin joint)
what is a bone spavin?distal tarsal osteoarthrosis
what joints is it uncommon to see osteoarthosis?proximal joints (elbow, shoulder, stifle +hips) = BAD prognosis
What is osteoarthrosis an end stage process for?many underlying etiologies (chronic progressive, degernative process)
what is osteoarthrosis secondary to?osteochondrosis, septic arthritis, articular fractures, poor conformation, ligamentous instability (anything that damages the articular cartilage)
how is osteoarthrosis characterized?periarticular bony proliferation, well defined margins, marrow joint space (loss of articular cartilage), suchondral bone sclerosis (eburnation)
what is the severity of osteroarthrosis?VARIABLE, mild= small periarticular osteophytes, severe = large periarticular osteophytes, severs sclerosis and joint space narrowing
where are common locations for osteophytes (periarticular bone formation)?on the lateral/ medial edges of the joint

Section 4

Question Answer
define osteoyelitisaggressive bone lesion caused by infection or acquired (developmental)
what is the most common aggressive lesion in large animalsosteomyelitis
what is the periosteal distribution with osteomyelitis?periosteal distribution: cortial destruction (lysis), activer periosteal reaction, long zone of transition
define osteoarthsis progressive, secondary (end-stage) process, acquired
what is the most degenerative lesion in LAosteoarthrosis
what is the periarticular distribution of osteoarthrosiswell defined
osteoyelitis is one of the main joint disorders that can lead to _______osteoarthrosis