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LA MS 2

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britt611's version from 2017-02-01 02:54

Section 1

Question Answer
Define osteochondrosisnon aggressive bone lesion
define chondrosiscartilage abnormality
what is the pathophysiology of osteochrondrosisfocal disturbance of endochondral ossification - articular cartilage abnormalitiy
what species is osteochondrosis most common inpigs, horses, dogs
describe the etiology of osteochondrosismultifactoral, possibly hereditary leading to breeding implications
ossification failure = ____= _____less bone = bone defects -- this means fragile cartiblage leading to fragmentation
what is another name for osteochondrsisosteochondritis dissecans
osteochondrosis vs osteochondritis dissecansOC= non inflammatory, OCD= fragments are seen
who is OC clinically important to?athelets- causes lamnesses/ poor performance
what joints are most commonly affected by OC in horsestarsus, stifle, fetlocks (all 4)
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Section 2

Question Answer
What is the most common lesion location in the horse for OC/OCD on the tarsusdistal intermediate ridge of the tibia (DIRT)- can also see it along trochlear ridge and medical malleius
What 2 veiws are best for assessing DIRT?lateromedial and DMPLO
how do you identify DIRT on a lateral view?by superimposition of trochlear ridges of the talus
what are some radiographic signs of OC of the equine tarsuswell defined, convaced defect in the tibial cochlea (distal intermediate ridge of the tibia), mildly displaced, well defined, round mineral fragment
what is important to remember to do when looking at equine tarsus?radiograph the other limb, OC/OCD is bilateral!
what is the most common area for OC on the stifle?lateral trochlear ridge -- can alos see it on the medial femoral condyle
what are radiographic signs of OC on the lateral trochlear ride of the stifle?variable size, concave defects with associate variable numbers of well defined, Variable in size, and displaced calcified bodies
OC vs OA on location of lesionsOC= articular while OA= periarticular
what is OC of the medial femoral condyle of the stifle usually associated with?subchondral cyst = osseous cyst like lesions
Describe the subchondral cyts commonly associated with OC of the medial femoral condyle of the stiflewell-defined, round lucency continuous with the concave articular lesions
What are 2 manifestation of the fetlock consistent with OCossesous cyts like lesions, fragmentation of the sagital ridge
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Section 3

Question Answer
osteoarthosis =progressive, secondary end-stage process
osteochondrisis=developmental disorder of articular cartilage and subchondral bone
osteomyelitis=aggressive bone lesion causes by infection
what are 2 causes of OAOC and osteomyelitis
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Section 4

Question Answer
What are 3 important foot diseases of horses/LAlaminitis, navicular degeneration, pedal osteitis complex
Define laminitisinflammation and or ischemia to the blood vessels supporting the hoof wall
what is lost due to laminits?loss of interdigitation of insensitive (epidermal, hoof wall)an sensitive (dermal, distal phalanx laminar corium) laminae
What is the normal appearance of a hoofparallel orientation between the dorsal aspect of the distal phalanx and dorsal hoof wall
what i laminits commonly secondary to?systemic illness (sepsis, vasculitis) -- can also be due to injury leasing to alfter weight bearing, endocrinopathy, coritcosteroids
what are the 2 phases of laminitisactue/development and chronic
dwevelopmental vs acute phase of laminitisdevelopmental: insult to first sign of lamness, acute= onset of lameness until clinical collapse
What are some radiographic signs of laminitis?displaced distal phalanx (chronic), degree of rotation, increased founder distance, thin sole and lucent lines within hoof walls
what does displaced distal phalanx indicateCHRONIC laminitis
what are some ways the distal phalanx can be displaced?roation (palmar deviation of the distal phalanx), sinking (uniformly thick dorsal hoof wall)
is sinking or rotation harder to seesinking- >20mm thickness is considered abnormal for any breed
what is the founders distancedistance between the extensor process and the coronary band - requires a metal bead to be placed on coronary band -->1cm considered abnormal
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Section 5

Question Answer
where do you collect serum to assess for laminitisbetween the epidermal and dermal lamina
what does increasing widith of the line indicate?progressive roation or laminar necrosis
what does it indicate is the line of the hoof wall separation extends to the solesecondary infection - may also be hematogeneous
what phase in laminitis is considered chornic remodelingactive phase of chronic laminitis
what is common after chronic remodeling laminitispersist changes in new bone formation (dorsal aspect of P3), mild persistent rotation of P3, ski-tip shape to tip P3, signs of non-septic pedal osteitis, type 6 solar margins fractures
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Section 6

Question Answer
What is another name for the navicular bone?distal sesamoid bone
what soft tissue structures associated with the navicular boneDDF, impar ligament (distal P2), navicular collateral ligaments (middle P2), navicular bursa, distal interphalangeal joint
what are 3 names of the same disease of navicular bonenavicular disease, navicular degeneration, navicular syndrome
which horses are prone to degenerative disease of the navicular bonequarter horses
What is the best view for assessing navicular degenerationskyline view!
what do you see in a skyline view that shows navicular degenerationloss of corticomedullary definition - due to increased medullary sclerosis, irregular margins of flexor cortex, lucency of the flexor cortex
is navicular degeneration bilateral?YES! bilateral thoracic digits
What are you evaluating in a 65 degree Dorsal proximal to palmarodistal obliquesynovial invagination- looking for increased number/size and abnormal shapes
are small synovial invagination normal?YES! small round to oval and confined to distal border
What tear is associated with navicular syndrome?tear int he DDF tendon
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Section 7

Question Answer
define pedal osteitis complexinflammation of the distal phalanx- may be septic or aseptics
describe a normal solar marginsmooth, well defined with vascular channels of uniform width
describe normal caveatswide varity in appearance of distal phalanx, - limited periosteum so remodeling changes tned to persist or resolve slowly
what is the best view to assess pedal osteitis complex?dorso-65- degree proximal to palmarodistal oblique
What is the pathophysiology oc pedal osteitis complex?demineralization of the distal phalanx, poorly-understood mechansim leading to concussive forces on the bone and poor conformation/shoeing
When is lameness worse with pedal osteitis complexon hard surfaces
what are the radiography signs of pedal osteitis complexirregular solar margin (can be well defined or poorly defined think septic, also increased # of vascular channels), vascular channels widen peripherally, +/- circular lucencies in the palmar processes
why is septic pedal osteitis no a true osteomyelitisbecause there is not true medullary cavity - little periostium so almost no periosteal reaction.
what is septic pedal osteitis often secondary to?penetrating wound "street nail" or solar abscess
what are some radiographic signs of septic pedal osteitisfocal, generally poorly defined demineralization of the solar margins, gas within the hoof wall, overall reduced bone opacity, wide vascular channels, overlap in signs with non-septcs
What are signs of non septic pedal osteitismargins are well defined, no gass seen in hoof wall, and no lysis is detected
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