L17 - Protein Synthesis

malra16's version from 2018-01-10 15:56

Section 1

Question Answer
Which modification does the nucleotides in tRNA contain?They are methylated or demythylated
Which regions can you find over half of the nucleotides used in tRNA?In base-paired helical regions
How many ribonucleotides does tRNA contain?73-93
The wobble hypothesis...accounts for the ability of some anticodons to recognize more than one codon.
In the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase reaction ... Binds to the synthetaseATP
In the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase an ... bond is formedmixed anhydride bond
n the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase an acyl ... bond is formedester
amineacyl-tRNA synthetases may recognize their tRNAs by.. Recognizing the anticodon, both the anticodon and the acceptor stem region, or by recognizing extended regions of the L-shaped molecules.
The ribosome of E.coli consist of.. A large subunit comprising 34 kinds of proteins and 2 different rRNA molecules.
What is the average diameter of the E.coli Ribosome?200 Å
In translation, amino acids are activated when..When they are attached to tRNA molecules
In translation, initiation begins with.. and by pairing it with.. binding of mRNA to a 16s rRNA sequence (CCUCC) and by pairing it with the initiator tRNA.
In translation, a peptide bond is formed between to units. What are they called?aminoacyl-tRNA and peptidyl-tRNA.
In translation, a carboxyl group of a growing polypeptide chain is transfered to another group, on a enzyme. What is the name of the enzyme, and which group is it transferred to?Aminoacyl-tRNA and to an amino group.
Where does peptidyl-tRNA reside?Either in A or the P site.
What does release factors do?Recognize translation stop codons.
Release factors causes peptidyl transferase to use what, as a substrate?H20
Release factor 1 and 2 recognize what in E.Coli?2 mRNA triplet sequences.
What is the wobble?It allows tRNA anticodons to bind strongly to the first two codon bases, which in turn allows the thrid base to wobble in place.

Section 2

Question Answer
In eukaryotes, in which ribosomes does translation occur?Only ribosomes, which contain a copy of 5S, 5.8S, 18S and 28S rRNA molecules
Translation is terminated bya release factor that recognizes stop codons and hydrolyzes GTP.
In translation, where does the proteins bind to mRNA?5' end.
How can it be regulated?By protein kinases
How much ATP does it cost to charge 1 amino acid?2 ATP molecules
The tRNA synthase needs to recognise both..The anticodon and the amino acid
The ribosome has 3 different sites for tRNA molecules. Which?Aminoacyl bindingsite, peptidyl site and Exit site (Just remember APE)

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