yakaraxa's version from 2016-05-11 13:49


Question Answer
Early conditions for black people (3)- Slavery abolished1863, but still suffered from poverty, segregation and discrimination of all kinds. // In the southern states in the USA blacks had their own separate, cafes, cinemas, transport, and toilets. // Jim Crow’ Laws prevented blacks from voting and enforced separate, and unequal, schools. These were state laws that forced, for example, blacks to pass tests in order to vote. Thirty-two states had segregated schools.
Black employment during and after WW2 (5)- The Second World War provided black Americans with a good opportunity to push for civil rights.// 700,000 Black Americans moved north and west from the southern states to find work in the war industries // . By the end of the war much had changed. Black officers were also appointed in all three services and the Air Force began to train black pilots, 600 in all by the end of the war.// Altogether about 1,000,000 black Americans served in the armed forces. // Many were sent to Europe where they served in countries that had no racial bars. When they returned to the USA in 1945 it was even harder to accept the return to discrimination.
Black organisations (2)- The NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People) was founded in 1909 and particularly tried to raise the issue of their denial of civil rights.// In 1942 CORE, the Congress of Racial Equality was set up and black newspapers set up the Double V campaign. Victory over Hitler and Victory in the struggle for equality.
Changes once Truman came to power (3)- In 1946 President Truman set up a President’s Committee on Civil Rights, including a bill to outlaw lynching and ban Jim Crow Laws, but this was crushed by Congress. // In 1948, Truman issued an Executive Order ending segregation in units in the armed forces. This came into effect in 1950 and was in force during the Korean War. // In 1950 the Supreme Court declared that black and white student could not be segregated in the same school and that the education provided in segregated schools had to be equal in every respect.
Brown vs Topeka case (3)- In 1951 Oliver Brown was told by the Topeka Board of Education in Kansas that his seven year old daughter Linda could not attend her nearest school.// The NAACP supported the case and Brown was represented by Thurgood Marshall, who later became the first black member of the Supreme Court. // Eventually Oliver Brown won his case. In 1954 the Supreme Court declared that all segregated schools were illegal, because separate must mean unequal.
Emmett Till (3)- 1955 Emmett Till. His friends dared him to speak to a white woman in a store. As he left, after buying some sweets, he said ‘bye baby’. // The store-keeper seized him and three days later the body of the body was found dead. He had a bullet in his head and his skull was crushed. // An all white Jury found the store-keeper and his half-brother, both of whom were white, not guilty after an hour of deliberation
Integration of Little Rock (4)- In 1957 Elizabeth Eckford and eight other black students tried to enrol at Little Rock High School in Arkansas. She was stopped by the State Governor, Orval Faubus, who surrounded the school with the state National Guard. // President Eisenhower sent federal troops to escort Elizabeth Eckford and protect her and the other students. After a month they were replaced by National Guardsmen under the orders of the President, they stayed at the school for a year// In 1957 Eisenhower introduced the first Civil Rights Act since 1875. It set up a commission to prosecute anybody who tried to deny American citizens their rights. // The demonstrations were seen on television and in newspapers across the world. Many US citizens saw, for the first time, the racial hatred that existed in the southern states.// Governor Faubus attempted to get round the President’s action by closing all the schools in Arkansas in September 1958. He was forced to open them after.
The Montgomery Bus Boycott (3)- In 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested in Montgomery, Alabama, for refusing to give her seat on a bus to a white man. // The Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) was set up to organise a boycott of buses, led by a local church minister, Martin Luther King. Eventually the bus company was compelled to give in and desegregate the buses. // A peaceful approach had brought about a significant victory. It had shown that black Americans could organise themselves. Following the boycott King set up the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and became its president in 1957
MLK and Sit ins 1958-62 (3)- The first was at Woolworth's in Greensboro North Carolina, where eighty-five students demanded to be served at a whites only counter. // altogether 70,000 took part and 3,600 went to jail. When whites turned violent there was widespread television coverage and support for Civil Rights. // By 1961, 810 towns and cities were desegregated. Student protests also began to be organised by the Student Non-violent Co-ordinating Committee (SNCC), which was formed in April 1960. Many students dropped out of their studies to work full-time for civil rights.
MLK and Freedom Riders 1958-62 (4)- The Supreme Court decided in December 1960 that all bus stations and terminals that served interstate travellers should be integrated. In 1961 King and the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) wanted to test that decision by using the tactic of the freedom ride. // The Freedom Riders began to make bus journeys to break Jim Crow Laws. The first of the freedom riders was in May 1961, when thirteen CORE volunteers left Washington DC by bus to travel to New Orleans. // At Anniston, Alabama, a bus was attacked and burnt. In Birmingham, there was no protection and the freedom riders were attacked by an angry mob. The police chief, Bull Connor, had given the police the day off.// Nevertheless, they had gained tremendous publicity. The Freedom Riders wanted to put pressure on the Kennedy. They succeeded; later the same year all railway and bus stations were desegregated by the Interstate Commerce Committee.
JFK and Civil Rights (4)- He began to appoint black Americans to important positions. His brother Robert, who was Attorney General, prosecuted people who tried to prevent blacks from voting. // In the same year both the Kennedy’s held meetings with the main civil rights groups, including the SNCC, CORE and the NAACP. Between them they formed the Voter Education Project. This was intended to help black Americans register for the vote and so increase the number of black voters. // In June 1962, the Supreme Court had upheld a federal court decision to force Mississippi University to accept James Meredith. The University did not want any black students and Meredith was prevented from registering. President Kennedy sent the National Guard and federal troops into Mississippi, rioting followed, 23,000 troops were needed to keep order.// There were riots and two people were killed and 70 were wounded. Soldiers had to remain on the campus until he received his degree, three years later
Army desegregated1948, after the war
Why did MLK want the protests to be non violent?to 'leave people in no doubt who were the oppressors and who were the oppressed'
Rosa Parks refused to give up her seatDecember 1955
How long did the Montgomery Bus Boycott go on for?381 days
Supreme court ruled segregation on buses unconstitutionalDecember 1956
Plessy v. Ferguson- Supreme Court rule segregation would be accepted but it had to be 'separate but equal'1896
Brown v. TopekaJune 1951
Supreme Court ruled school segregation was unconstitutionalMay 1954
How many southern states agreed with the integration of schools ruling?two. Arkansas and Texas.
Integration of Little Rock, Arkansas 1957
Lunch counter sit in at Greensboro, North CarolinaFebruary 1960
Supreme court passed a law to desegregate the facilities in bus stationsDecember 1960
First Freedom rides1961