# Kinetics, pharmacogenomics, stats and economics,

rename
vitohuxo's
version from
2016-06-27 02:07

## Section

Question | Answer |
---|---|

kinetics= | what human body does to a drug |

dissolution | active ingredient released from the dosage form. |

destroyed in gut drugs primarily by | hydrolysis |

enteric coarted | limits drug degradation in stomach so that released in basic intestine... |

micronized | make smaller particles so more surface area to dissolve |

noyes whitney equation | rate of dissolution |

only _________ drugs can enter into thebloodstream | dissolved |

favors drug distribution | high lipophilicity, low mw, unionized, low protein binding. |

first order elimination | when a certain concentration of drug is removed per time |

zero order elimination | when a constant amount (mg) of a drug is removed per time no matter how much is in the body |

michaelis menton kinetics= | begins as first order but at higher concentrations the rate of metabolism reaches maxiumum capacity. |

km | conc at which the rate of metabolism is half of the maximal |

saturable kinetics drugs= | phentoin, theophylline, and voriconazole |

gene= | specific nucleotides code for a single protein |

codeine genomics | cyp2D6= can be ultra metabolizers, extensive, intermediate, or poor metbolizers into morphine. |

carbamazepine genomics | HLA-B*1502= if present then the risk of a severe skin reaction increases from 1% to 5-10% |

trastuzumab and genomics | if a breast cancer tumor overexpresses HER2, this medication will be efficacious. must be 2+ or 3+ to use drug |

abacivir(ziagen) testing | hla-b5701. if positive, do not use because of hypersensitivity reactions |

plavix testing | cyp29 *2 and *3 alleles - poor metabolizers will not be efficious these people |

carbamazepine testing | test in asian patients for hla-b1502 allele= more chance hypersensitivity. do not use these people |

cetuximab (erbitux) and panitumumab (vectibix) testing | KRAS positive mutation on codon 12 or 13 do not use drug- not effective |

afatinib (gilotrif), cetuximab (erbitux), erlotinib (tarceva), and panitumumab (vectibix) testing | EGFR protein positive, can use these drugs |

imatinib (gleevec) testing | if positive, can use drug for CD117 for GI tumors |

imatinib, dasantinib, nilotinib, ponatinib, bosutinib testing | BCR-ABL positive to use drug- luekemia |

maraviroc (selzentry) testing | ccr5 positive can use drug HIV |

rituximab (rituxan) testing | positive can use drug for cancers B cell CD20 expression |

allopurinol testing that should be considered | HLA-B *5801 = increased risk skin reactions in korean patients with sig renal impairment, or those han chinese or thai ancestry. |

warfarin testing should be considered | cyp 2c9 and vkorc1- increased bleeding risk due to decreased function alleles |

means used when | data not skewed, continous data |

median used when | data skewed |

guassian curve | normal distribution or bell shaped curve. mean, mode, and median would all have similiar values |

standard deviation calculated by taking | square root of the variance |

null hypothesis | states no difference between the two groups |

p-value | probability the result was due to chance |

95% CI does not include 0 or 1 for odds ratio, risk ratio, or hazard ratio then results are | sig at the 0.05 level |

type 1 error= | null hypothesis is true that there is no difference, yet rejected in error |

type 2 error= | null hypothesis is false, yet accepted in error. |

beta expressed as | power |

statistical power is | avoiding a type 2 error, probability that the test will reject the null when null false. as power increaes, chance make type 2 error occuring decreaes. |

sensitivity | proportion time a test is positive in patients who have the disease. percentage of true positive |

specificity | prop time a test is negative patients do not have the disease. true negative. |

case control stud | compare patients have disease versus do not. rare disease or outcomes good for....make an association. |

cohort study | study cohort of people over time and compared to group not exposed to intervention such as drug. may be prospective or retrospective. |

cost minimization analysis | two or more interventions already demonstrated equivalency in outcome and costs of each are being compared. dollars cost and outcome equivalent |

cost benefit analysis | comparing benefits and costs of an intervention in terms of monetary units.cost dollars and outcome is dollars |

cost effective analysis | main advantage is that outcomes easie to quantify. most common type seen. cost in dollars and outcome is natural units like mmhg blood pressure, life years gained, %at treatment goal |

cost utility analysis | dollar cost and quality adjusted life years outcome. |

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