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Kinesiology Ch2

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hezeyolo's version from 2017-09-12 13:06

Section

Question Answer
Why should the study of the systems of the body be examined from an integrated approach?- helps students to understand how the various systems of the body respond in an integrated fashion (orderly fashion) to acute and chronic stimuli and conditions
What are the primary functional components of the nervous system and how do those components respond to exercise?peripheral and central nervous system are the two components of the nervous system. - can be responsible for certain functions, being the control of body movement by skeletal muscles and the role of the higher brain centers in performing voluntary physical activity and movement.
What are the three primary types of skeletal muscle fibers?Type I: Slow, Red Type II: Fast, Red Type III: Fast, White
How does the cardiovascular system work to maintain challenges to homeostasis during exercise?the system assists with temperature regulation to help control body temperature during periods of increased movement - the system removes CO2 and waste products to allow for elimination of metabolic waste products of metabolism - the system transports nutrients and other substances to the tissues of the body to allow for the delivery of macro-nutrients and substances to working tissues
Describe the role of the pulmonary system in maintaining normal acid-base balance during rest and exercise this system brings air into the lungs, allowing for oxygen to be removed from the air, and facilitating the elimination of CO2 into the external environment. - by regulating the CO2 levels in the blood, the system helps maintain the acid-base balance of the body
What role does the urinary system play in the treatment of individuals with hypertension? the system can play a important role in helping to manage blood pressure in hypertensive individuals by regulating fluid volume in the body. - Diuretics are a group of drugs that increase the excretion of sodium from urine by the kidneys, and this in turn increases the volume of fluid excreted as urine - the reduction of NA+ concentration in the blood results in a reduction of total blood volume and decreases the resistance provided by the blood vessels of the body. This can reduce blood pressure (both)
How does the gastrointestinal system influence the delivery of carbohydrates to working skeletal muscle?the delivery of ingested carbs from the gastrointestinal tract to the cardiovascular system might be a limiting factor in the use of ingested carbohydrates as an energy source for contracting muscle during exercise
Describe how insulin resistance influences the development of the disease metabolic syndrome- The metabolic syndrome is a disease where insulin is not produced at adequate amounts in the body. Part of the Endocrine System
Provides a list of the energy sources used in the three primary energy-producing pathways. Which pathways are used during low-, moderate-, and high-intensity exercise?1. Immediate Sources: ATP and creatine phosphate - provides energy during the initiation of movement and during HIGH_INTENSITY exercise 2. Glycolysis and glycogenolysis: - provides energy during MODERATELY HIGH_INTENSITY 3. Oxidative metabolism: - provides energy during resting and LOW to MODERATELY HIGH INTENSITY physical activity and exercise
Maximal Lactate Steady State the exercise intensity where maximal lactic acid production is matched by maximal lactic acid removal
Body Compositionthe amount of fat and nonfat tissue in the body
Ergogenic Aids any substance or device that improves physiologic or psychological performance
Oxidative Metabolism the use of oxygen to breakdown carbohydrates, fats, and proteins to produce energy
Glycogenolysis the breakdown of glycogen to produce energy
Glycolysisthe breakdown of glucose to produce energy
Creatine Phosphatean organic compound found in muscle and cardiac tissue and capable of storing and providing energy for muscular contraction
Overtraining Syndrome a condition whereby too much training results in the maladatations of body responses
Epidemiologic the branch of medicine dealing with the incidence and prevalence of disease in large populations
Acquired Immunity that is derived after birth
Innateimmunity existing from within the body at birth
Anabolic Effectsthe development and maintenance of tissue, particularly skeletal muscle
Androgenic Effects the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics
Exogenous coming from outside the body
Homeostasisthe maintenance of relatively stable internal physiologic conditions
Anticarcinogenic tending to inhibit or prevent the activity of a carcinogen or the development of carcinoma
Procarcinogens compounds or substances that can lead to the formation of cancer cells.
Carcinogena cancer causing substance or agent
Electrolytes the anions and cations that are distributed in the fluid compartments of the body
Micronutrientsthe foodstuffs needed in smaller quantities, including vitamins and minerals, that are used for numerous processes in the body
Macronutrients the foodstuffs needed in large quantities, including carbohydrates, fats, and proteins that are used for numerous processes in the body
Osmolaritya measure of the concentration of a solution
Exercise-Induced Asthma a medical condition characterized by shortness of breath induced by sustained aerobic exercise
Maximal Oxygen Consumptionthe maximum amount of oxygen the body can use during maximal effort exercise.
Atherosclerosisa disease process whereby cholesterol and blood lipids build up in the arteries, causing a narrowing of the vessel opening
Recombinant Human Erythropoietinthe laboratory production of human erythropoietin
Erythropoietina hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells and hemoglobin
Osteoporosisa disorder in which the bones become increasingly porous, brittle and subject to fracture, owing to loss of calcium and other mineral components.
Hematopoiesis the formation and development of red blood cells
Cardiac Output the volume of blood pumped by the heart per unit of time, especially 1 minute
Stroke Volume the volume of blood pumped from the heart with each contraction
Parasympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system that tends to act in opposition to the sympathetic nervous system - more active during resting conditions and following food consumption
Sympathetic part of the autonomic nervous system that tends to act in opposition to the parasympathetic nervous system, especially under conditions of stress
Autonomicpart of the nervous system that regulates involuntary action
Somatic part of the nervous system that controls voluntary action
Efferent Neuronsnerves that carry electric impulses away from the brain and spinal cord.
Afferent Neurons nerves that carry electric impulses toward the brain and spinal cord
Reproductive Systemnot essential for homeostasis but essential for perpetuation of the species
Urinary SystemImportant in regulating the volume, electrolyte composition, and pH of the internal environment. Removes wastes and excess water, sodium, acids, bases, and electrolytes from the plasma and excretes them in the urine
Digestive SystemObtains nutrients, water, and electrolytes from the external environment and transfers them into the plasma. Eliminates undigested food residues to the external environment
Energy System not a physically defined system but important to all life requiring processes. Provides energy through aerobic and anaerobic pathways in all cells.
Immune SystemProtects the body against foreign invaders and tumor cells, assists with tissue repair.
Skeletal Systemsupports and protects body parts and provides calcium storage in bone
Muscular System Allows body movement and heat generation through muscle contractions which is important in body temperature regulation Skeletal System
Integumentary System Serves as protective barrier between external environment and remainder of body, also includes sweat glands. Makes adjustments in skin blood flow important to body temperature regulation.
Circulatory System transports nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, waste products, electrolytes, and hormones throughout the body
Respiratory Systemobtains oxygen from and eliminates carbon dioxide to the external environment. Helps regulate body pH by adjusting the rate of removal of acid-forming carbon dioxide
Endocrine Systemacts by means of hormones secreted into the blood to manage processes that require duration rather than speed (e.g. metabolic activities and water and electrolyte balance)
Nervous Systemacts through electrical signals to manage rapid responses of the body. Also responsible for higher functions including consciousness, memory, and creativity
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