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Kaplan 8

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zomovefa's version from 2018-02-04 07:26

Section

Question Answer
What lab value is MOST sensitive to most recent alcohol use?Serum GGT -> Gamma-Glutamyl transferase
Removal of duodenum causesCCK decreases -> Increase gastric emptying -> Increases acid production
Cholera causesIsotonic volume loss -> Intracellular volume normal -> Extracellular Decrease -> Osmolarity the same
Complement mediated hemolysis of blood vessels in the faceButterfly or malar rash
Men with progressive weakness of arms and legs WITHOUT loss of sensationPoliomyelitis -> Affecting ventral horns
Retinoblastoma gene RB can be tested throughPCR
I cells OF THE Duodenum releaseCCK
Phosphate reabsorption in renal tubule increased bySodium-Phosphate cotransporter activity
What enzyme is affected by sodium citrate?Phosphofructokinase 1
Blood, pus, mucus in the diarrheaShigella NOT virus
Polygonal tumor cells surrounded by amorphous proteinaceous material amyloidMedullary thyroid carcinoma
Autosomal recessive think always ofInter family marriages between cousins -> Ashkani jews
two types of heterotopic mucosa in Meckel's diverticulumGastric & Pancreatic
Boyy with testes + uterusAnti mullerian deficiency
Typa A gastritisPernicious anemia -> Atrophic gastritis
Boerhaave syndromeRupture of entire esophagus -> Air in the mediastinum during x ray
Left sided hemineglect syndrome (only shaves right side of face, no blink on left side)Right parietal or frontal lesion
Vaginal laceration of posterior fornix of vagina penetrates most likely theRecto-uterine pouch (Pouch of douglas) -> usual spot for endometriosis tissue
H.Pylori cytotoxic effectAmmonium
Neural tube makesAlar plate & Basal plate
Dorsal part of the spinal cord (Sensory)Alar plate
Ventral part of the spinal cord (Motor)Basal plate
Prostate cancer with spread to the bone. What correlates to the bone lesions?Serum Alkaline phosphatase
General screening test for prostate cancerPSA
Surgical time outConduct a final verification of the correct patient, procedure, and site
Sentinel event meaningDeath or serious physical or psychological injury to a patient or patients. Ex ~Surgery on the wrong arm lead to loss of function of arm)
Treating hypertension with radio waves(odd thinking), ill dressed clothesSchizotypal personality disorder
Diffusely thickened rugal folds, weight loss diarrhea, hyperplasia of mucosa cells and scant gastric glands, increased TGF-aMenetrier disease -> Loss of PROTEIN
Latex particle agglutination used to diagnoseCryptococcus neoformans
Kid with uncoordinated arm and leg movement / slurred speech / overall body abnormality, staggering gait(pes cavus), patellar and ankle reflex absent with missing vibration and positionFriedreich ataxia -> GAA repeats -> Trinucleotide -> Loss of myelin in the peripheral nerves / Dorsal columns, CST, Spinocerebellar tract
Intrinsic muscle of handLower part of the plexus (C8-T1)
What condition will give FALSE HIGH of H1Abc?Vitamin B12/folate deficiency or Iron deficiency -> Due to RBC living longer than usual
Erythema of cervix, vaginal itching with malodorous frothy yellow green dischargeTrichomonas Vaginalis -> Motile Trophozoites
Peanut lodged in bronchusVentilation perfusion mismatch -> due to hypoxia
Pt hit a dear and ate it later 5 days later with fever, non productive cough SOB, lymphadenopathyFracisella tularensis small pale staining slow growing aerobic g- coccobacilli grow -> Intracellular organism - Type IV sensitivity
Anterior dislocation of shoulderAxillary nerve injury -> Loss of sensation of upper lateral arm, Shoulder abduction
Reddish color of the choroid in the macula of eyes, motor retardation, hearing and seeing issues, Ashkenazi jewTay Sachs Frameshift
Any protein binding to DNA also Dna binding proteinSouthwestern blot
Which tissue makes the highest mucin-secreting cells?Sublingual gland
Which tissue makes the highest serous cells(clear fluid)?Parotid gland
Infant with conjunctivitis, eosinophilia and pneumonia in the 5th day of life?Chlamydia -> Vacuoles with reticulate bodies in epithelial cells
Round ligament of liver aka ligamentum teres hepatitis is a remnant ofUmbilical vein
heart rate increase & pupil diameter decreaseACh
Hr decrease & pupil diameter sameACh + Propranolol
ACh causesMiosis (M3 stimulation) -> Vasodilation & reflex tachycardia
Abdominal pain, cramping, blood in stool with fever, colonoscopy stained with H&EUlcerative colitis
Crescentic Microorganisms and necrosis in brain MRI biopsyToxoplasma Gondii
Central necrosis surrounded by neutrophils and gliosisBrain abcess
Low ph, low k, high chloride, low bicarbDiarrhea -> Poop out chloride
What glands does facial nerve innervate?Submandibular & sublingual glands
What glands does glossopharyngeal innervate?Parotid gland
Sheehan syndrome normal hormonesALDOSTERONE & Oxytoxin
Fever, nausea, diarrhea, rash low bp, tachycardia, diffuse erythematous rash over her body. last menstrual period 6 days agoToxic shock syndrome -> S.Aureus
Iron deficiency anemia -> severWidened pulse pressure, systemic vasodilation, decrease viscosity, tissue oxygen tension, peripheral vascular resistance. Increased CO & Venous return & Arterial diameter
H Pylori pathogenicityCytotoxin-associated gene A -> Stomach cancer
Nausea vague abdominal pain with hx of gastritis, loss of weight , area with mucosal thickening with central ulceration, atypical glands with enlarged hyperchromatic nuclei. Risk factor?Infection with Helicobacter pylori
Indentation in sternum tall skinny, finger over his thumb his thumb extends past ulnar edge of his handMarfan -> Fibrillin is associated with Microfibrils -> DO NOT Confuse with Friedreich ataxia
Mycosis FungoidesMalignant appearing T cell lymphocytes
1ST trimester pregnant women exposed to parvovirus, complication in baby?Hydrops Fetalis
If you suspect some with hepatitis in the past but want to check the pt is in a chronic state, then look for?Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)
Immunity or recovery against Hep BIgG against HBsAg
Supracondylar fractureMedian nerve affected -> Ulnar deviation of the hand on flexion on the wrist
Intradermal edema and dilated superficial lymphaticsHIVES
Accumulation of fluid within the epidermisSpongiosa
Brachial cyst (Moves with swallowing)Incomplete obliteration of the Second pharyngeal cleft
Sudden onset of SOB and chest pain, percussion of chest shows hyperresonanceSpontaneous Pneumothorax -> A radiolucency along the left chest wall
Wedge shaped opacity in lungsPulmonary embolism
Lobar infiltratePneumonia
OsteoarthritisClear fluid with high protein content and no significant numbers of inflammatory cells
Rheumatoid arthritisClear fluid with high protein content and large numbers of neutrophils and mononuclear cells, no bacteria and no crystals
Baby no longer feeds well, weak suckling reflex, hypotonia, with areflexia, liMbs shows fibrillation potentials(flaccid paralysis)Lower motor lesion -> Werdnig-Hoffman -> Damaged structure Ventral horn cells -> Similar pathophysiology to Polio
Number of pt with hypertension vs pt without hypertensionChi Square test
Mean of 5 independent groupsANOVA
Septic shock cytokine? Fever, tachycardia, low bp, E.coli ptTNF Tumor necrosis factor
Mumps teratogenic effectAqueductal stenosis in the midbrain -> Mesencephalon
(TB Pott's disease) Spread of infection along the fascia of a muscle that attaches to vertebraHip Flexors -> PSOAS Muscle -> Flex the thigh at the hip
T3 treatment causesIncrease in T3(triiodothyronine), Decrease in TSH & T4(Thyroxine)
AgglutinationPositive
Pt serum agglutinates Type A & Type B erythrocytesMom blood type a, Father blood type B-> Pt could be natural offspring of these patients
Atypical ductal hyperplasia OR sclerosing adenosis more malignant?Atypical ductal hyperplasia
Internal iliac arteries supplyBladder
External iliac arteriesAnterior abdominal wall
Pt with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections, S.pneumoniae and H.influenzaBruton's Agammaglobulinemia X-linked - ONLY males affected in pedigree/No B lymphocytes in circulation/ Tyrosine kinase gene missing
Posterior cruciate ligament injury can damagePopliteal artery
CLLBcell, in older people, smudge cells, Cd19 &Cd20
Warm autoimmune hemolysisIgG directed against RBC (sle, lymphoma, medication)
Cold autoimmune hemolysisIgM directed against RBC (mycoplasma pneumonia, infection)
Inspiratory stridor, drooling, pericarditis, difficulty swallowing, SOB, high fever came from guatemalaH.Influenza type B -> Epiglottitis -> Thumbprint sign
Keratin filled cysts with stuck on waxy appearanceSuborrheic keratosis
Nuclear atypia of basal keratinocytesActinic Keratosis
Hypoglossal nerve innervates what tongue muscle?Genioglossus -> Protrusion of tongue -> Lick your wounds
Diabetics will always haveIncreased osmolarity
Pt from brazil, SOB, FEVER, Ankle edema, decreased exercise tolerance, decreased end diastolic volume and impaired compliance(restrictive heat), focal myocardial necrosisLoeffer endocarditis -> Endomyocardial fibrosis with hypereosinophilic syndrome
Supine aspirationSuperior segment of the right lower lobe
Immune defciency that presents adolescent or adult lifeCommon variable immunodeficiency
Focal granulamatous inflammationTemporal arteritis(Giant cell arteritis)
Fibrinoid necrosisPAN
Leukoclastic PolangitisWegners
PCOS labsLow FSH, High LH, Normal Inhibin B
Tender and freely movable lymph nodesInfection or inflammation
Non tender fixed lymphadenopathyLymphoma/metastatic carcinoma
Brain shows demyelination with abdnormal giant oligodendrocytes some of which contain eosinophilic intranuclear inclusionsProgressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy -> AIDS
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Question Answer
COPD pt has High Bicarb & High CO2Compensated Respiratory Acidosis due to High barb
COPD pt had Normal Bicarb & High CO2Uncompensated Respiratory acidosis due to Normal Bicarb
Chronic smoker with destruction of alveolar septa,airspace enlargement, heavy pigment deposition(anthracosis)Emphysema
BronchiectasisAbnormal dilation of bronchi -> Seen in CF & Kartagener syndrome
BronchitisHypertrophy of mucus glands in bronchi
Low magnesium affectsParathyroid -> Low PTH -> Hypocalcemia
Decreased fractional excretion of sodium, FEna <1% meansPost renal failure (Any sort of obstruction-BPH)
Increased albumin meansIncreased plasma volume BUT decreased interstitial fluid volume
Marathon runner with increased Myoglobin -> Hyperkalemia due to cell lysisHIGH Aldosterone, K secretion by Principal cells(PEED out), Reabsorption of Sodium
RetrospectiveOdds ratio -> Case control test
Wait to find the risk factorRelative risk -> Cohort test
Yolk sac hemoglobin synthesis3 weeks
Liver hemoglobin synthesis1 month
Spleen and lymphatics2-4 months
Bone marrow4 months
Recurrent Chronic Stable angina pectoris causesGradual loss of myocytes small areas of damaged myocytes and fibrosis in the subendothelial region
Hepatocellular carcinoma due to hepatitis B or C, HPV, HIV or alcohol MOAViral DNA integrates into host causing -> Inactivates tumor suppressor gene p53
Burkitt lymphoma or follicular lymphomaTranslocation of oncogenes
Amyloidosis causes nephrotic syndrome causingLOSS of Antithrombin III putting pt at a high risk for Thrombosis such as renal vein thrombosis
Systemic secondary amyloidosis other causes?Similar pathophysiology with Ankylosing spondylitis, Rheumatic disease, HLA B27+
PT with Intrauterine Device has yellowish granules with G+ branching rodsActinomyces Israelli
Pregnant women have increased total T4 due toIncrease in thyroid binding globulin(TIBG) -> Normal free T4 causing TSH to be normal
Sarcoidosis Lung x rayHilar Online Picture
Uveitis, Arthritis, Hypercalcemia, Elevated ACE enzymes, bumps in pts lower extremities(erythema nodosum)Sarcoidosis usually in African Americans
Whorling patternPSAMMOMA bodies
Paralysis of entire face(BELL'S PALSY)Ipsilateral LMN lesion of CN VII
Paralysis of lower half of the faceContralateral UMN lesion of CN VII
Chlamydia trachomatis unable to synthesize? ATP HENCE why grows intracellularly using host ATP
Damage or cutting of CN IX & X causesLack of firing rate -> Tachycardia & Hypertension
Stimulating CN IX & X causesIncreased firing rate -> Bradycardia & Hypotension
G negative DiplococciNeisseria, Actinobacter, Moxarella
Increase condom use effect on Incidence & PrevalenceBoth decrease
If incidence increases thenPrevalence also increases
PCOS lab testProgestin challenge test -> Test triggers menstruation -> PCOS +
DMD VS BMDFrame-shift VS In-frame
Acute cholecystitis infection causes byG- or G+ -> Tx 3rd Generation cephalosporin (cefotaxime or ceftriaxone) + Metronidazole
Occasional small, laminated concentric, calcific spherulesPSaMMoma bodies -> Papillary carcinoma of thyroid, Serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma of ovary, Meningioma, Mesothelioma AKA Whorlling
Cancer diagnosis pt sitting in waiting room with wife & daughter waiting to hear diagnosisI have to discuss something in private. I have to ask the family to sit out
Uncontrolled hypertension arteriolesWall/Lumen ratio INcreases, Total lumen cross section area & Density DECREASES
Facial infection can lead toCavernous sinus infection
`Generalized bony widening with partial obliteration of marrow spaces~, pt has fractures with minor falls, decreased hearing, scoliosisOsteopetrosis -> Dysfunction of Osteoclasts to reabsorb bone
Protein sorting and packaging ~addition of mannose 6 phosphate residues to proteins are functionGolgi Apparatus
Synthesis of proteins destined for incorporation into lysosomesRER
Vomiting causesLower & Upper esophageal sphincter RELAX, Abdominal muscles & Diaphragm CONTRACT AcT it OuT
Emboli from right common femoral vein thrombusDVT
Joint affected in DMDHIPS
Elevated BUN with normal creatinineDecreased renal perfusion (Low BP also decreased urine output) or Increased Urea synthesis (BURN pt causing protein catabolism -> Increased urea)
Failure of recanalization of part of the embryonic guyDuodenal atresia
Itchy vesicular rash with lesions appearing in crops (Lesions of different stages)Chicken pox -> Risk for activation of shingles
Pudendal nerve block for pregnancy deliveryIschial spine
Painful white plaques in asthmatic ptsCandidiasis Tx Nystatin flush
Risk factors for ARDSTrauma, Massive Transfusion, Sepsis, Acute Pancreatitis -> Diagnosed via ABG(PaCO2/FaCO ratio <200) Tx- Mechanical ventilation
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