Kaplan 7

zomovefa's version from 2018-02-02 16:52


Question Answer
Bordetella Pertussis whooping cough toxin causesHypoglycemia -> Toxin stimulates islet cells of langerhans causes insulin production
Burning tingling pain of his hands and feet (neuropathy), angiokeratomas, cataracts, x linked recessiveFabry's
Which structure activates patellar or any reflexSpindle afferents
Squamous cell carcinoma of bladderSchistosoma Haematobium, Long term catheter use, bladder stones
Transitional cell carcinoma of bladderCigarette use, aromatic amine exposure, cyclophosphamide therapy radiation therapy
Marked increase in granulocytes cell lineage -> Elevated neutrophils & leukocytesLAB Findings of CML 9/22
Fever, fatigue, diminished mental acuity, 5 day trip southeast asia. Several days later hemolytic anemia, pulmonary edema, renal failure coma SEVEREPlasmodium Falciparum
Plasmodium vivax and ovale fever2 day spike -> chloroquine+primaquine to prevent relapse hypnozites
Plasmodium malariae fever3 days spike -> Chloroquine
STEEEP Patient care based on scientific knowledge and avoiding waste in equipment and supplies
Clubbing -> hypoxia seen inLung cancer, Lung disease, Cyanotic heart disease, liver disease
Anorexia can causeMetatarsal stress fracture
E.coli strain resistant to many drugs is put with another E.coli strain without resistance causes new strand to be resistantTransfer of multiple drug resistance plasmids via conjugation
Minimal change diseaseAbnormal Secretion Lymphokine production by T-cells -> decreases anions in the glomerular basement membrane increasing permeability to albumin and proteins
Minimal change disease associated withHodgkin lymphoma & T-cell lymphoma
Tonsillectomy or palatine tonsils can affect what nerve?Glossopharyngeal nerve CN IX
Soft palate and pharynx muscle innervated by what nerve?Vagus nerve CN X
Positive stranded RNAPoliovirus
Body and tail of pancreas NOT HEAD only supplied byceliac trunk
Chemotaxis of white blood cellsC5a
Bovine serum albumin given three times 7 days apart / the last injection of BSA is mixed with pertussis toxoidIgG against BSA and IgM against pertussis toxoid
Gestational diabetes caused by increasedPlacental growth hormone & human placental lactogen
Multiple Liver abscess causing loose stool with mucus and bloodEntamoeba histolytica
Sudden onset fainting episodes that occur without warning resulting in loss of muscle tone with NO abnormal movements or loss of bowel or bladder function Atonic
Secretin test for gastrinoma causes increased gastrin becauseGastrin secreted by tumor cells does not have normal inhibitory feedback control
Anticholinergic toxicity Hot as a hare, red as a beet, dry as a bone, blind as a batSympathetic -> Diphenydramine
Biopsy of mass shows spherical yeasts with multiple peripheral buds encircling the central cellParacoccidioidomycosis - Central america
Wedge shaped infarct of kidneyEmboli, thrombus
DIC kidney damage "widespread microvascular thrombosis or hemorrhage"Diffuse cortical necrosis
Alcoholic presenting with Metabolic acidosis with oxalate crystals. think ofEthylene glycol poisoning ANTI-FREEZE
Risk factor for Vaginal candidiasisDiabetes mellitus, antibiotics, increased estrogen, decreased immunity
Which immunoglobulin class was first developed initially to any immunogenic exposure (for example bee sting)IgM
Chronic kidney disease or failure effect on KLow Renin & Low Aldosterone with High potassium -> tx with k wasting diuretics or mineralocorticosteroids
Pre renal failure(heart failure) VS Acute tubular necrosis(fat embolism)ADH high, filtered Na excretion <1%, BUN/Cr >20, Urine Na <20
Pathogenic attribute of pseudomonas in CF ptsPolysaccharide capsule
Chronic pancreatitis can causeweight loss(malabsorption), vision loss(A), bone pain(D), Skin dryness(E), petechiae, prolong pt ptt(K)
Bacteria goes through sex pilusConjugation
Exercise muscle has glycolysis leading to -> high pyruvate dehydrogenase complexIncreased pyruvate concentration / REDUCED NADH/NAD ratio / High ADP, Increased calcium
Test to check whether you are a carrier of a disease such as CFTR is done through PCR
Locate translocation, large insertions, deletion of chromosomeFish test
Alcoholic -> bloody vomit -> DehydrationLOW ECF & ICF / HIGH Osmolarity
Internal anal sphincter fail to relax and urged to defecate is not sensed due to damage ofPelvic splanchnic nerve
Normal physiology of anaL sphincterExternal anal always contract -> Internal always need to relaxed -> POOP
Lebers VS Mytonic dystrophyRed ragged fibers VS Ring fibers seen on muscle biopsy
Sudden drop or loss of postural muscle tone seizure with no bladder or bowel incontinenceAtonic seizure
Rheumatic fever, Autoimmune hemolytic anemiaType II Cytotoxic hypersensitivity Cellular damage
SLE, RAType II Non Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity No cellular damage
Iron deficiency anemiaHIGH CO,SV, HR, PULSE PRESSURE -> High CO due to low viscosity of blood
What would fail the swiss cheese modelBusy work environment
Amyloid in RA is produced or made fromLiver
Ulceration of cecum with blood and yellow-green streaks in stools, round organisms, small nuceli with distinctive rodsand granules of chromatinE. Histolytica
Pt with weak peripheral pulses and systolic murmur showing multiple echogenic masses in the myocardium of the left and right ventriclesRhabdomyomas -> Dx Tuberous sclerosis
Tuberous sclerosis sx Skin -Ashleaf spots, angiofibromas, shagreen patches / Brain - Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, epilepsy, cognitive deficits / Heart - Rhabdomyomas / Kidneys - Angiomyolipomas / Lungs - Lymphangioleiomyomatosis / Eyes - Retinal Hamartomas
Lysogeny toxins -> "two bacterias share one bed to become potent"Cholera, Salmonella O antigen, C.botulinum toxin, S.pyogenes, C.diphtheriae, Shiga toxin
HBcAB & HBeAb Positive Amyloid -> HBsAg & HBsAb missingWindow period -> Good prognosis
Alzheimer's proteinTau protein -> Neurofibrillary tangles -> "Old ppl dementia"
APP protein leading to beta-amyloid proteinSenile plaques -> Down syndrome Alzheimer's "Young ppl"
Weight loss (cancer), is presenting with erythema swelling and warmth(dvt) in left leg-> left leg pain goes away in 1 week and present in right leg without a clot seenMigratory thrombophelpitis -> Trousseau syndrome -> Seen in most cancer conditions
CTZ location "vomit"Area postrema on the floor Of the fourth ventricle
To access pancreatic head, which ligament must be incised from the lesser omentum?Gastrohepatic ligament
NF1 pts can also haveTumors of peripheral nerves aka Neurofibromas
Estrogen + breast carcinoma infoGood prognosis & respond good to hormonal therapy with tamoxifen(Estrogen receptor antagonist)
Multiple sclerosisTH1 mediated secretes Interferon-gamma
Punched out VS Linear ulceration on the esophagusHSV(eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions) VS CMV(cytoplasmic intranuclear inclusions)
Diabetic nephropathyOvoid hyaline masses in periphery of the glomerulus
Back of the head or brain has what kind of sinusTransverse sinus
PID pt gonorrhea or chlamydia is eliminated throughTH1 due to it being intracellular organism chlamydia -> Type IV hypersenisitivity causing scarring of fallopian tubes
Brain tumor with necrosis and hemorrhage with bizarre pleomorphic tumorGlioblastoma multiforme
Right upper body drainsRight Subclavian vein
Left upper body and the rest of lower bodyThoracic duct
Pt with pain radiating to the backAortic Dissection
Aortic Dissection complicationBilateral renal artery occlusion -> Hypoperfusion -> Bilateral renal infarction
Hepatitis E vs Hepatitis BHepEvirdae vs Hepadinaviridae
TSH hormone FUNCTIONGrowth by stimulating Growth hormone -> Lack can cause Dwarfism
What cannot be measured through spirometeryCannot measure anything with residual volume ->for example Functional residual capacity, TLC, residual volume
Systolic ejection murmur and a thrillHCM
Deficit in making new memoriesHippocampus -> back view -> inferior right
CANT Arthritis(run), urethritis(pee), conjunctivitisReiters syndrome -> Shigella, salmonella, yersinia, campylobacter, chlamydia
Full obstruction of GIPyloric stenosis
Partial obstruction of GI / mass lesion surrounding the pancreasAnnular pancreas -> Abnormal rotation of the pancreatic bud
Hemorrhagic cutaneous lesions on the truck head and neck, no auditory stimuli, periventricular calcificationCMV -> Lymphadenopathy during pregnancy
Hemorrhagic cutaneous lesions on the truck head and neck(thrombocytopenia), no auditory stimuli, periventricular calcificationCMV, T.gondii, Rubella
DKA pts have decreasedRatio of acetoacetate to 3-hydroxyacetate -> 3-hydroxyacetate increased 5 times of acetoacetate
DKA pts have increasedRatio of 3-hydroxyacetate to acetoacetate
What nerve is affected if interscalene musclePhrenic nerve
Sturge Weber VS VHLLeptomeningeal angiomatosis VS Cerebellar hemangioblastomas
Medial aspect of post central gyrus stimulatedTactile sensation from her foot
Lateral aspect of the post central gyrus stimulatedHands
What signals to turn off gluconeogensis(pfk1) and enhance insulin productionIncretin (Exenatide,Liraglutide) Sx-weightloss
What breaks down incretin?Dipeptidyl peptidase -> Inhibit by giving Sitagliptan,vildagliptans
Who is the sugar or glucose donor?UDP
Who adds multiple sugar or glucose donor?dolchol
Branch point 1,6 linkageAndersons disease -> find only straight chains
Glycogen found in most active organsHeart, skeletal muscle, adrenal
G6PD makes NADPH(electron donor) forFatty acid synthesis, DNA synthesis, RBC repair(glutathione)
GlucokinaseLiver & Pancreas
G6PD protects mediterraneans fromMalaria
Transketolase cofactorB1 thiamine used in wernicke's area WERNICKE ENCEPALOPATHY and if an alcoholic sugar before B1 and he is missing b1 -> pulls in water -> brain swelling ICP -> death of wernicke's area WERNICKE APHASIA slurred speech -> Now when mamillary is affected later KORSAKOFF confabulation
Alcoholic always giveThiamine FIRST & then Sugar or Iv fluids
Tansaldolase cofactorB6 Pyridoxine
Trasnaminases (AST,ALT,GGT)Make amino acids -> Need B6
What amino acid involved in majority tranaminasesGlutamate
What kreb cycle intermediate involved in most transmaniasesa-ketoglutarate
GGTLiver mitochondrial enzyme
Hepatic necrosisAST, ALT in thousands
Fulminant hepatitisHepatic encephalopathy, evidence of GABA
Cirrhosiscant make albumin or factor 7 PT Elevated PROGNOSIS
Incomplete penetrance seen most inAutosomal dominant conditions
What inhbitis PFK1(GLYCOLYSIS) and activate AcetylCoa Carboxylase(fatty acid synthesis)Citrate -> This why you eat everything in moderation and anytime you eat too much of anything it will make you fat
How many rounds to make or break a fatty acid?Carbons/2-1
How many NADPHS to make it?C-2
How many atps to makeit?C-1
Saturated FAbad -> No double bonds
Unstaurated FAGood-> had double bonds -> easier to workit out -> easier for fat to escape
Essential fatty acidLinolenic & Linoleic(makes arachidonic acid-> Makes Cyclooxygenase(Prosttaglandins) or Lippooxygenase(Leukotrienes)
Late phase of allergic reactionLeukotrienes(bronchoconstrictor death)
Early phase of Allergic reactionHistamine

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