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Kaplan 5

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zomovefa's version from 2018-01-14 14:35

Red VS White

Question Answer
Red fibers (type I)Endurance and posture-maintaining muscles
Red fibers (type I)Increased myoglobin (red color)
Red fibers (type I)Increased mitochondrial content
Red fibers (type I)Increased capacity for aerobic metabolism
White fibers (type II)Fast responses; sprinter's legs
White fibers (type II)Decreased myoglobin
White fibers (type II)Decreased mitochondrial content
White fibers (type II)Decreased capacity for aerobic metabolism
White fibers (type II)Larger diameter and more hypertrophy with strength conditioning
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Cholestrol

Question Answer
What are the Triglyceride TransportersChylomicrons, VLDL, IDL
ChylomicronMade by Apo48 of the GI tract which transports triglycerides to endothelium and liver
VLDLMade in liver and scents triglycerides to adipose for storage
IDLTransport triglycerides from adipose to everywhere else
XanthomaCholesterol
Cholesterol synthesis enzymeHMG coA reductase -> Most active at 8pm -> Late night meals more likely to form cholesterol -> Take statins in the evening -> Hence why you pay night shift ppl more because you are cutting there life span short -> American indians have the highest concentration
Most common gall stone stuck inCystic duct
Common bile duct stone cluesPancreatitis, high wbc or fever, elevated alkaline phosphatase
LDL normal<100
LDL normal in diabetics<70
LDL 100-130Diet & Exercise,2 risk factor treat
LDL >130Treat
<200 CholesterolNormal
200-240 CholestrolDiet and exercise 20-30 mins 4 times a week / Treat if male or has hypertension
>240 CholesterolTreat
Less than 40 HDLLow -> Moderate Alcohol consumption, Diet and exercise, Weight loss, Estrogen
>60 HDLHigh
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Errors

Question Answer
Physician misdiagnosed a pt due to needle stick marks and assuming it was a drug withdrawal but it was a peptic ulcer bleedingFraming effects
A pt with a burning sensation in chest incorrectly treated for reflux esophagitis instead of MI despite having proof for MIAvailability heuristic
Despite the rapid test sowing false strep throat but the pt has all the sx for strep throat delaying txBlind obedience
Despite blood work showing diabetics due to high glucose, dr assumes he just ate a big meal hence why high glucoseAnchoring Heurisitc
Error done by person actually doing the job/assignmentSharp end error Active
Error done all of the parts of the process farther away from the action itself like work environmentBlunt end Latent -> Continued use of outdated computer system
Doing something wrong -> Prescribing furosemide to sulfa allergy pt with documented sulfa allergyError of commission
Failed to do the right thing -> Not prescribing insulin to a newly diagnosed type 1 diabetesError of omission
Near miss event is whenDr prescribes opiod to a opioid allergic pt and the nurse caught the mistake and did not administer it
No harm event isA opioid allergy pt was given a opioid drug but does not cause harm
Example of unpreventable adverse eventNeuroleptic malignant syndrome due to haloperidol
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Question Answer
SepticShockTNF TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR
ComplianceArterial contractility or elastisity of vessels -> Decreased compliance in pts with age related arteriosclerosis
Adult with progressive weakness of his legs and arms with a hx of minor weakness of these muscles since childhood. No loss of sensationPoliomyelitis -> Ventral Horns
Sickle cell in african american community is due toNatural selection -> Increases the frequency of genes that promote survival
When do you check for a pts drug to drug interaction?Dispensing time
Primary follicles VS Secondary folliclesProphase(majority) VS Metaphase
Primary preventionDecreases incidencen -> which resuls in decreased mortality
Shingles aka varicella zoster produces messenger RNATranscribing the genomic DNA
Immune complexes(Type III) deposited in the body is removed byClassical Complement pathway
Burning tingling of hands and feet angiokeratomas, corneal opacitiesFabrys
Adductors are supplied byObturator nerve providing sensoring to medial thigh
Drug half life 3 hrs and if in 6 hr how much is drug is left?25%
Drugs half lifes50% 25% 12.5%
Large fungating mass 2cm gastroesophageal mass shows glands that invade into muscular areaEsophageal adenocarcinoma -> Risk factor Barrets esophagus
CoagulativeNecrosis in kidneyPapillary Necrosis -> POSTCARDS Pyelonephritis,Obstruction of urogenital tract, sickle cell, TB, chronic liver disease, analgesic/alcohol abuse, renal transplant rejection, diabetes mellitus, systemic vasculitis
Failure of Glucose administration to supress GH secretionAcromegaly
Macrolides areInducers - erythromycin & clarithomycin EXCEPT for Azithromycin
Colcheine MoaInhibits microtubules -> Leukocyte migration and pahgocytosis -> reduced inflammation
Family physician orders stnadard laboratory tests and schedules her a follow up evaluation with dieticianMedcare B plan
Acute Cholecystits inflmmation or ruptureAnerobes tx Cefotaxime+metrondiazole
Acinar cellsAmylase & lipase
Alpha cellsGlucagon
Beta cellsInsulin
Delta cellsSomatostatin
Guilian barre syndrome is similiar toAutoimmune condition such as Multiple sclerosis
Stable angina complicationLoss of myocytes with fibrosis in the sub endocardium
Addisons diseaseExtracellular volume down, Intracellular volume Increase, Intracellular and extracellular osmolarity decreases
Helium dilution technique measureRV or FRC
Amylodosis causesNephrotic syndrome Protenuria
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Question Answer
Translocation of oncogenesBurkitt lymphoma, follicular lymphoma
Insertional mutagenesisHuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
Viral oncogenesoncogenic retroviruses
Tumor suppressor gene inactivationhepatitis B virus (HBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV)
Integration of viral DNA into chromosomesHIV and many DNA viruses (HPV)
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Incidence vs Prevalence

CauseIncidenceMortality
Primary prevention leads toDecreased incidenceDecrease in mortality
New TreatmentNDecrease
New vaccineDecrease Decrease
Increased death from diseaseNDecrease
Decreased risk factorsDecreasedecrease
Increased recoveryNDecreased
Increased survivalNIncreased
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Face muscles

Question Answer Column 3
BuccinatorFacial nerveHolds food against the teeth while chewing
Masseter and temporalisTrigeminal mandibularElevation of mandible
PalatoglossisVagusDraw tongue and soft palate together during swallowing
PalatopharyngeusVagusElevates pharynx during swallowing
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Pharmokiniteics

Question Answer
Taking acid drug with food will causeLess absorption
If you want an acid drug to absorb then give it withEmpty stomach
If you want a base drug to absorb then give it withFood
Base drugNeutral, Fat soluble, Crosses membrane, Affects the liver p450, not to use in babies or elderly or liver cirrhosis
Acid drugCharged, Water soluble, Does not cross membrane, Affects kidney GFR, not used in diabetic, nephropathy
Base overdoseGive acid
Acid overdoseGive base
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