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Kaplan 3

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zomovefa's version from 2017-11-12 15:01

Areas

Question Answer
temporo occipital cortexVisual agnosia
Angular gyrusGrestmann -> 1) agraphia (inability to write); 2) acalculia (loss of ability to calculate mathematical problems); 3) right-left disorientation (difficulty identifying right vs. left body parts; 4) finger agnosia (inability to name or identify individual fingers)
Calcarine sulcusCortical blindness with a visual field defect
Lateral geniculate nucleuscontralateral hemianopsia
Prefrontal cortexFrontal lobe syndrome -> variety of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral problems
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Kidney

Question Answer
Extracellular fluid volumeinulin
Plasma volumeRadio-iodinated serum albumin (RISA)
Blood volumeCr-RBC
Total body waterD2O, antipyrine or tritiated water
Interstitial volume formulaECF volume (inulin VOD) - plasma volume (RISA VOD
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Lymphogranuloma venereum vs Granuloma inguinale

Question Answer
LGVChlamydia
LGVEnlarged, tender ulcers but initially painless
Granuloma InguinaleKlebsiella granulomatis
Granuloma inguinalePainless
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Aspirin

Question Answer Column 3 Column 4 Column 5 Column 6
Aspirin 15 minsRespiratory alkalosisNo changeHighLowHigh
Aspirin 30-60 mins (90%)Combined respiratory alkalosisLowHighLownormal
Aspirin mixed acidosisSigns of GABALowLowHighLow
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Benzos

Question Answer Column 3
ShortTOMTriazolam, Oxazeoam, Midazolam
IntermediateAlprazolam, Lorazapam, Temazapam
LongDiazapam, chlordiazepoxide, Flurazepam
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Electron transport inhibitors

Question Answer
RotenoneComplex I (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase)
Succinate dehydrogenaseComplex II (succinate-coenzyme Q oxidoreductase)
Antimycin AComplex III (Coenzyme Q-cytochrome C oxidoreductase)
Cyanide, COComplex IV (Cytochrome C oxidase)
OligomycinComplex V (ATP synthase)
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Question Answer
Decrease in myoglobin causes the muscleto grow by stimulating VEGF
After exercise muscle biopsyVEGF increase , B-FGF no change , Myoglobin Oxygen saturation decrease during & after, Capillary density no change
Biotin deficiency due to raw eggs VS Thiamine B1 deficiencyPyruvate-> oxaloacetate VS Pyruvate-> Acetyl-CoA
Hypospadias is defect ofUrethral folds -> In female it is Labia minora
Scrotum in male is the same asLabia majora in Female
MM complicationsAnemia, infection, fractures, renal failures, neurological abnormalities
Putting pacemaker in or near coronary sinus can cause damage toCircumflex artery
Prions are caused due toInsensitivity to nucleases
What artery supplies anterior abdominal wall, peritoneium, diaphragmSuperior epigastric artery
Extrahepatic CholelithiasisOutside of liver -> Buildup of conjugated bilirubin due to gall stone formation due to lack of movement of galbladder -> ADEK deficiency
Extending the thigh VS Extending legSciatic nerve(Posterior dislocation) VS Femoral nerve(Anterior dislocation)
Pleura layers suprficial -> deepMediastinal -> Parietal most common area for fluid accumulation -> Visceral
Acute pancreatitis can causesHypo calcemia -> due to saponification from uptake of calcium
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy went under myomectomy portion of septal wall is removed leads toComplete heart block due to removal bundle of HISS
High altitude causesIncreased 2,3-BPG this enhancesunloading of 02 from hemoglobin, hypoxia, hyperventilation, Increased hemoglobin concentration, Pulmonary hypertension(constriction of pulmonary vessels)
H.Pylori is foundIn the mucus layer above the mucosa
Naked virus Norwalk can be inactivated throughSodium hypochlorite
Peach colored smooth area of skin showing a few hairs tapered near the proximal endAndrogenic Alopecia -> Autoimmune condition related hair loss
Brown sequard lesion on the left on C7Loss of pain, temperature and light touch on right side VS Loss motor, vibration, proprioception, spastic paralysis in the left
HemochromatosisIncrease serum iron / elevated Transferrin saturation
Maintence doseClearance X Plasma concentration at a steady state / How much drug is absorbed(iv-100)
Fragile x diagnosed throughSouthern blot of FMR1 gene to looks for size, repeat segment & methylation
Decreased interval between A 2 and the opening snapMitral Stenosis
Pulmonary edema due to sepsisIncrease vascular permeability, pulmonary microvascular permeability fluid and protein leak in the lung, interstitial fluid protein concentration, NORMAL hydrostatic vascular permeability
Hypercoristolism aka cushingoid like syndrome during pregnancy is due toEctopic expression of LH receptors on the adrenal cortex tx OCP-> Inhibits LH receptors
Accumation of C8-C10 acylcarnitinesMCAD deficiency
H.Pylori damages GI byProducing ammonia
Candida albicansProduces germ tubes short germinating hyphae
Necrotizing enterocolitis featuresGangrenous & transmural necrosis
Premature baby with respiratory distress and staining silver staining cystsP.Jiroveci
A person obtains gratification of an unacceptable impulse while still acting in a socially acceptable mannerSublimation eg- Pedophile ends up drawing childrens pictures as a fund raiser to raise money for kids
A pedophile who now hates kids and completely avoids themReaction formation
Renal clearance of Glucose increases butNo effect on Inulin and causes PAH clearance decreases
Sudden cardiac death is when someone dies suddenly due to cardiac arrhythmia within a few minutes of symptomsIschemic heart disease
Abnormal amount VS Abnormal sequence of hemoglobilnThallesemia VS Sickle
Fractional excretion of waterUrine flow / GFR(INULIN)
Filtration fractionGFR/RPF AKA Inulin/PAH
Renal plasma flow lookPAH
GFR look forInulin
PDA thrillBlood flow from Aorta -> Pulmonary artery
Reticulate bodiesIntracellular
Elementary bodyExtracellular dark mole like bodies
SporangiosporesRhino cerebral organisms -> Diabetic ketoacidotic -> mucor,rhizo
MorulaeThink Ticks
ArthroconidiaC.immitis
Erythema of throat, abscess formation in tonsillar pillarsGroup a -> S.pyogenes -> Penicilin -> Bactericidal inhibits cell wall mucopeptide synthesis
Which drug causes asthma symtpomsAspirin -> Cycooxygenase inhibitor
One barr body46X X (NORMAL)
Two barr body47X XX
Three barr body48X XXX
Recurrent (MOTOR) median nerveWeakness in thumb opposition
Hyper ventilationHigh O2, High pH, Low PCO2
DKA LabsLow PFK-1, Glut 4(Skeletal,Adipose) Expression / High Hormone sensitive lipase, Glucagon/insulin ratio, fFBPase-2
Splenic artery blocked but spares what part of the duodenumHead of pancreas -> through superior & inferior pancreaticoduodenal branches of SMA
Splenic artery blocked leads to affectingTail and body of the pancreas due to blood supply from Celiac trunk -> splenic artery
Parathyroid was taken out leading to hypocalcemia which decreased reabsorption of calcium atDCT due to PTH hormone working there
PseudomonasProduces alginate which helps prevent phagocytosis and avoids ciliocillary clearance
Failure of medial nasal prominences to merge onlySmooth philtrum
Failure of medical nasal promincences and ~left maxillary prominenceCleft lip
Unstable angina factNo increase in CK-MB or troponin
Prinzmental angina responds tonitroglycerine, calcium channel blockers, vasodilators
Paternity test is done throughPCR Microsatellite Analysis
C5 nerve damage expect problems withflexion, abduction and lateral rotation of shoulder & flexion at elbow- musculotaneous nerve
Positive for both HIV antibodies & HIV-1P24 Antigen confirmsHIV infection
Eosinophilic inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes of an alcoholicMallory bodies -> Condensed Cytoskeleton proteins
Fever headache sore throat, generalized lymphadenopathy with ~diffuse bronze color maculopapular rash covering body palm and soleSecondary Syphilis
Stroke volumeCO / HR
COSV x HR
Excretion rateGFR x plasma concentration
Multiple sclerosis diseaseInitiated by Cd4 + TH 1 lymphocytes react to myelin antigens -> secrete Interferon-Gamma
DK potassiumMoves from intracellular to extracelluar causing hyperkalemia -> excreted in urine and over time leads to depletion of K
Leiomyomas (uterus shows smoothly marginated submucosal rounded 5 cm mass in the fundus )Whorlling pattern of well differentiated smooth muscle cells
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Question Answer
CO posioning TX1
EDTAWill bind to anything with 2+ charge (Calcium, iron, lead, copper, magnesium)
LeadSuccimer only oral drug, Pencillamine pulls out of plasma, Dimercarpo pulls put of bonemarrow, EDTA helps excrete lead through urine
Seizures drugs with folate deficiency side effect?Phenyton & Valporic acid
Pain in her left forearm and tingling in her left hand. Physical examination shows decreased two-point discrimination on the palmar aspect of the 2nd and 3rd digits, and weakness of the 1st digit. Sensation over the thenar eminence remains intactCarpal tunnel syndrome Opponens pollicis
Most commonly affected area in the brain during hypercoagulable stateSagittal sinus
Which of the following defective in Cystic Fibrosis?ATP dependent chloride channels that is regulated by protein kinase A phosphorylation
Glucose given to a pt for rehydration is becauseChloride, Bicarbonate, water, Na follow glucose leading to -> rehydration
Wound contracturesMyofibroblasts
Positive adson testRotating pt head to the left side with the neck extended results in loss of the radial pulse on the left -> Thoracic outlet syndrome -> Lower trunk of brachial plexus
Pt with uti leads to cyanoiss of lips, finger tips, intercostal muscle retractions, inspiratory crackles are heard on asculationUTI -> Sepsis
Bloody diarrhea with mucusCamplobacter Jejunicurved rod
Sharp end errorDoing the wrong thing that was instructed
Latent or blunt errorMachine related issues
InspirationIncreased HR/ Right ventricular pressure -> Decreased Systolic pressure/ Left ventricular pressure
Total Peripheral resistanceMean arterial pressure - Right atrial pressure / CO
COMean arterial pressure - Right atrial pressure / Total peripheral resistance
SLE rashComplement mediated lysis of blood vessels in the face
Screening test to detect IgG antibodies bound to surface of baby RBCDirect coombs test
Screening test to detect Circulating IgG Anti-Rh antibodies in the mother serumIndirect coombs test
Fundoscopic examination shows multiple white spots surrounded by hemorrhage bilaterallyRoth spots -> Bacterial endocarditis
Ring enhancing lesions in the cerebellum or temporal lobe due to untreated otits mediaBrain abscess due to S.pneumoniae
Causes of ring enhancing lesionNocardia, CNS lymphoma, Brain abscess, Toxoplasmosis, glioblastoma multiforme
JVP meaningCentral venous hypertension -> right sided heart failure
Multiple Sclerosis optic neuritis test resultsLight shining on affected eye causes DILATION of both eyes VS Light shinning on NORMAL eye causes CONSTRICTION of both eyes
Newborn with purple splotches on the skinBlueberry muffin baby -> Cutaneous extramedullary hematopoeisis -> Rubella, CMV, Toxoplasmosis
Volvolus MC in elderlySigmoid colon
Volvolus MC in youngCecum/Ascending colon
TORCHES -> Thrombocytopenic purpura, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, intracerebral calcficationCMV
ToRCHES -> PDA, Pulmonary stenosis, microcephaly, cataracts, deafnessRubella
ToRCHES -> Perforated palate, maculopapular bronzing rash, bone deformations, cns damage, notched teethSyphillis
Neutrophils release what that inhibits growth of bacteria by interfering with iron metabolismLactoferrin
Eosinophils releaseMajor basic protein -> Histaminase, arylsulfatase
InspirationIncreased HR/ Right ventricular pressure -> Decreased Systolic pressure/ Left ventricular pressure
Total Peripheral resistanceMean arterial pressure - Right atrial pressure / CO
COMean arterial pressure - Right atrial pressure / Total peripheral resistance
SLE rashComplement mediated lysis of blood vessels in the face
Screening test to detect IgG antibodies bound to surface of baby RBCDirect coombs test
Screening test to detect Circulating IgG Anti-Rh antibodies in the mother serumIndirect coombs test
Fundoscopic examination shows multiple white spots surrounded by hemorrhage bilaterallyRoth spots -> Bacterial endocarditis
Ring enhancing lesions in the cerebellum or temporal lobe due to untreated otits mediaBrain abscess due to S.pneumoniae
Causes of ring enhancing lesionNocardia, CNS lymphoma, Brain abscess, Toxoplasmosis, glioblastoma multiforme
JVP meaningCentral venous hypertension -> right sided heart failure
Multiple Sclerosis optic neuritis test resultsLight shining on affected eye causes DILATION of both eyes VS Light shinning on NORMAL eye causes CONSTRICTION of both eyes
Newborn with purple splotches on the skinBlueberry muffin baby -> Cutaneous extramedullary hematopoeisis -> Rubella, CMV, Toxoplasmosis
Volvolus MC in elderlySigmoid colon
Volvolus MC in youngCecum/Ascending colon
TORCHES -> Thrombocytopenic purpura, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, intracerebral calcficationCMV
ToRCHES -> PDA, Pulmonary stenosis, microcephaly, cataracts, deafnessRubella
ToRCHES -> Perforated palate, maculopapular bronzing rash, bone deformations, cns damage, notched teethSyphillis
Neutrophils release what that inhibits growth of bacteria by interfering with iron metabolismLactoferrin
Eosinophils releaseMajor basic protein -> Histaminase, arylsulfatase
Hepatic AdenomaCommon in high estrogen such contraceptive use or pregnant women. Complication- Rupture
If pt is on PPI but is - for H.pylori or NSAID use think ofZolinger elison
Insulin activatesPFK 1 & UDP gluco-phosphorylase
Wrist flexionUlnar
Lobar pneumoniaS. pneumonia
Bilateral Abdominal Bruit hints atRenal artery stenosis
Acalculous cholecystitisEnlarged gall bladder with thickened wall -> Risk factors- TPN, Ischemia, burns, childbirth, sepsis, multiple transfusions, mechanical ventillation
HuntersCoarse facial features, Hearing deafness, hepatosplenomegaly
Common factor in Tay sachs, Krabbes, Neimman pick, Metochromatic leukodystrophyOptic issues
Pt was given blood transfusion and goes in to DICAcute hemolytic reaction performed antibodies against donor blood group markers
2 Steps of collagen synthesis outside in extracellular areCleavage of C-terminal peptides for fibril assembly & cross linking of lysine and hydroxylysine to increase the strength of fibrils
Protein modification for collagen & N-acetylation happen only inRER everything else in Golgi apparatus
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SLE vs Drug lupus

Drug Induced lupusSLE
Anti-phospholipidAnti-smith,AntiDsDNA
ReversibleIrreversible
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