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Kaplan 2

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zomovefa's version from 2017-10-13 14:14

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Babesiosis and Borrelia Burgodoferi are both fromIXODES Tick -> Target rash only & you can have both if you get bite by one
Dermacentor TickPetechial rash + Target rash Ricketssia rickissis
AedesZika
AnophelesMalaria
Culex MosquitoWest nile
FleasYersenia pestis
Reduvig bugChagas
Tsetse flyTrypasonmasis
Coarctation of aorta sequeleLow bp lower extremity -> RAAS Activation due to decrease afferent arteriolar concentration -> Decreased Juxtaglomerular Ca levels -> increase cAMP stimulates protein Kinase A dependent renin secretion activating RAASsepticemias. It has a black, necrotic center and a raised hemorrhagic ring outside. Lesions result from perivascular bacterial invasion of arteries and veins in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue with subsequent release of exotoxins that are destructive to human tissue
Septicemias -> black, necrotic center and a raised hemorrhagic ring outside due to perivascular bacterial invasion of arteries and veins in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue with subsequent release of exotoxins that are destructive to human tissueEcythyma Gangrenosumdue to pSeudomonas
Ear canal shows swelling and granulation tissue in the left external auditory canal along with weakness of left-sided facial movementsMalignant Otits Externa -> pseudOmonas
Increased conversion of pyruvate to lactateAlcoholic consequence
End stage renal disease sequele (Dialysis pt)Decreased active Vitamin D leads to Secondary Hyperparathyroidism -> Leads to Renal osteodystrophy(Pathological fractures)
Sorting and packaging of proteins / Addition of mannose 6-phosphate residues to proteinsGolgi Apparatus
Baby with palable mass above the kidneyWilms tumor Embryonic blastemal cells, immature glomerular and tubular structure
anti-hepatiits B core antigen WITHOUT IgM component meaningChronic infection
Depolarization of cardiac myocytesNa Ca exchanger
Sickle cell anemia -> Kidney complicationPapillary necrosis -> Affects vasa recta vessels
Lumbar puncture pop heardEpidural - POP - Dura
Increased urinary delta-aminolevulinc acid and porpohobilinogenAcute Intermitent porphyria -> PBG deficiency
NF1 SequeleNeurofibromas derived from peripheral nerves
Liver periportal fibrosis VS BRIDGING FIBROSISChronic Active Hepatitis VS Liver Cirrhosis
Pt is hyperventilatingLow Oxygen and PCo2 -> Respiratory alkalosis -> Vasoconstriction due to lack of CO2 -> ~Decreased Cerebral blood flow
Selective IgA deficiencyRisk for transfusion reactions/ Increased Atopic allergies & Mucosal pathogens
Increased ADH meansDecreased serum osmolarity
Boy presenting with right thigh pain worse at night with xray revealing laminated concentric periosteal reaction surrounding the massEwing sarcoma ->Small blue cell tumors with onion skin appearance
Influenze antigenic reasortment aka shiftPandemics making vaccine ineffective
Influenza antigenic drift Yearly vaccinations
How alleviate esophageal varriecesAnastomosis of splenic vein - Left renal vein
What increases after a fatty mealChylomicrons Lipoprotein lipase deficiency
Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) is elevated and the pulmonary artery pressure is elevated provides an estimate of left atrial pressureMitral stenosis
Frame shift mutationsDMD, CF, tAYSACHS
PBCAutoimmune- Anti-mitochondrial, Increased bilirubin/cholestrol/AST/ALP/ALT, Cirrhosis
The primary sensory cortex is located on thepostcentral gyrus
The primary motor cortex is located on theprecentral gyrus
Boy with seizures, hypotonia, psychomotor retardation, and developmental delay with hypoglycemia with elevated alanine, pyruvate lactate, ketoacidsPyruvate carboxylase deficiency -> Oxalate deficiency also
Cryptoorcharidsm most serious complicationCancer
TSH in fetus causesGrowth hormone promoting growth
Decerebrate posturing coma -> Locked in syndrome causesLesion of ventral pons Basilar artery
Liver biopsy shows periportal fibrosis and finely granular eosinophilic hepatocyte cytoplasm. There is also dense lymphocytic inflammation and destruction of the limiting plate with piecemeal necrosisChronic active hepatitis
Synthesize proteins destined for incorporation into the lysosomesRER
Fibrinoid necrosis surrounded by palisading epithelioid cellsSubcutaneous Rheumatoid nodules
Thoracic duct drainslymph from left side of the head, neck and chest, the left upper limb and the entire body below the diaphragm
Right lymphatic duct drainsthe right upper limb, the right side of the chest, and the right side of the head and neck.
Femoral condyle fracture aka supracondylar fracturePopliteal artery
Common bile duct stone sequeleLive conjugates bilirubin but flow back -> Obstructive jaundice -> Conjugated hyperbilirubienmia -> Increased urine bilirubin and produces a darkening of the urine (tea-colored)
Conjugated hyperbilirubienmiaStone stuck int he common bile duct -> Decreased urobilinogen
UnConjugated hyperbilirubienmiaHemolysis -> Increased urobilinogen
Bacteriophage transfer one bacteria to anotherTransduction
Dr prescribes a sulfa drug to a patient who has sulfa allergy but the pharmacist ends up catching the mistake. How did the pharmacist catch thisDrug utilization review
Amorphous crystalline masses surrounded by macrophagesGout Tophi
Small cystic spaces caused by myxoid degeneration of connective tissue in which the normal connective tissue architecture is replaced by a gelatinous or mucoid substanceGanglion Cysts
Avascular necrosis of the femoral headMedial Circumflex artery branch of deep femoral artery
Avascular necrosis of the femoral shaftLateral circumflex artery~
Number of pts with hypertension VS number of patients without hypertensionChi-Square
Exposure to cigarettesmoke and lung cancerOdds ratio -> Case control -> Retrospective -> Prevelance
Evaluvate systolic blood pressure of patients in five different age groupsANOVA
Internal hemorrhoidsSuperior rectal veins anastomose with middle and inferior rectal veins
Caput medusaPortal paraumblical veins anastomose with caval superficial veins
Solitary thickened scaly white tan plaque with a slightly ulcerated crusted surface on penisBowen disease
Multiple reddish brown papules on penisBowenoid papules
Single or multiple shiny red papules on penisErythroplasia of queyrat
Cerebralpontine angleFacial VII, Vestibulocochlear VIII nerves could be injured
Facial nerve palsy issues1) Lacrimal gland dysfunction 2) Defective salivation 3) Defective corneal reflex 4) Defective taste anterior 2/3 5) Hyperacusis - Defective stapedius muscle 6) Defective facial expression
Non-invasive, found peripherally, arise from terminal bronchiole & spread along thealveolar liningBronchioalveolar carcinoma
ONLY proliferation of the glomerular mesangiumIgA Nephropathy - Berger syndrome
Most sensitive marker for alcohol consumptionGGT
Antibodies against platelet glycoprotein Ib receptor VS Deficiency of platelet glycoprotein Ib receptorImmune thrombocytopenic purpura VS Bernard soulier
What test measure antibody titers against virusesELISA
Prevalenceall cases of disease at a given period / total population
Incidence ratenumber of new events in a period / total number of persons at risk
Indirect hernia passeslateral to the inferior epigastric artery because the deep inguinal ring is lateral to the artery, covered by all three layers of the spermatic fascia
Compression of the abdominal wall at the deep inguinal ring does not prevent the appearance of the bulge at the superficial ringDirect hernia
Testicular torsion vesselsGonadal or testicular arteries arise directly from -> Aorta
BrocaInferior Frontal gyrus
WernickeSuperior Temporal gyrus
Takotsubo cardiomyopathyBroken heart syndrome
High serum osmolarity, Hyperglycemia, No ketonesHyperosmolar non ketotic coma -> Dehydration due to osmotic diuresis
High serum osmolarity, Hyperglycemia, ketonesDK
Eating dead animal or deer meatFranciella Tularensis -> Type IV hypersensitivity
Angelman or PradervilliMicrodeletion in chromosome 12 VS Microdeletion in chromosome 15
Atypical uniform polygonal neoplastic cells and proteinacious stromal material in aneedle aspiration of neckMedullary thyroid carcinoma -> Thyroid parafollicular cells-> C cells producing calcitonin
Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure same asLeft atrial pressure
Digeorge lacksCD 3 & CD 5
Type A GastritisPernicious Anemia
Type B GastritisH.Pylori
Acute Gastritis Patches of erythematous mucosa sometime with petechiae or ulcerationUremia, Alcohol, burn(curling ulcer), aspirin, nsaids, steroids or trauma (cushing ulcer)
sweating chills crying in a baby after feeding fructose hypoglycemic sxAldose B Fructose 1 phosphate
Lymphocytic gastritisMeinters Disease
Hypertrophic gastriisMenetrier disease
Cant abduct or adduct II-V FingersDeep palmar branch of ulnar nerve
Occipital bone defect with sac like protrusionEncephalocele
Delayed transport of the fertilized oocyte into the uterine cavity OR premature implantationEctopic pregnancy
Kidney shows enlarged multiple cortical cysts of varying sizesAPKD
3-12 DAYS after exposure presents with headache, several days later a rashRocky mountain Fever -> Intracellular infection Rickettttsia -> Wood tick -> Also causes Francisella Tularensis
Clonorchis sinesis vectors1st intermediate host snails / 2n intermediate host fish -> Humans
Alcoholic with feces in pantsDiarrhea -> Normal anion gap metabolic acidosis
Increased anion gap metabolic acidosis causesLactic acidosis, DK, Renal fail(uremia), Ethanol
Anion gap formulaNa - (Cl+Bicarb) -> 8-16
Low ph, Low bicarb, High PCo2Mixed acidosis -> Cardiac arrest
DNA taken up by organisms like h.influenzae, h pylori, streptooccusTransformation
DNA taken up by organisms like h.influenzae, h pylori, streptooccus with a virus helpSpecialized transduction
Facial infections drain intoCavernous sinus
APKD aneurysm are most commonly inCircle of willis Anterior & posterior communicating artery
MSH2 OR MLH1Lynch syndrome Dinucleotide instability
Sarcoidosis -> Restricitve lung diseaseFibrosis -> Increased Elastic recoil / Decreased compliance
Pagets diseaseNormal calcium, phosphorus, PTH / Increased ALP
Closure of rostral neuroporeAncephaly
Closure of caudal neuroporemeningomyelocele
ST segment elevated, Relieved with nitroglycerin, radiates tot he left shoulder, does not change with leaning forward to increase with workPrinzmetal angina
Axilla enlarged painful node, granulomas filled with necrotic debrisB.hensale Azithromycin
Friedriech ataxia Frataxin GAADorsal root ganglia degenerates -> transsynaptic degeneration of gracile & cuneate nuclei
B.petrususis causesHypoglycemia -> activates islet of Langerhans -> Increase insulin production
Elevate tongue to palateStyloglossus CN XII, Palatoglossus CN X
i CELL DISEASEPhosphotransferase activity in Golgi apparatus
Zollinger ellison syndromeHyperplasia of gastric parietal cells
+leukocyte estrase / - nitritesEntercocous faecalis OR S. Saprophyticus
Sever infection of both legs with creptius of tissue of legsClostridium perfringes -> Alpha toxin Lecithin
Shoulder droop, inability to shrug shoulder, Inability to raise the arm above the horizontal planeSpinal acessory nerve damage -> Trapezius muscle
Release of calcium from SR VS Sequestration of calcium within SR or CalsequestrinCausing contraction VS relaxation after contraction
Alveolar ventilation formula(tidal volume - dead space) X Respiratory rate
Zone 1 periportal vs Zone 3 PericentralClosest to bloody suppply VS Furthest from blood supply
Duschene muscular dystrophy sxDilated cardiomyopathy
DNA released from dead cells is taken up by recombination -> Bacteria that is now with high virulence or drug resistanceNatural transformation
Window period serologyHBcAb, HBeAb
Trinucleotide repeat expansions occur due to & atSlippage of DNA polymerase & S-phase
Young girl not menustrating, high bp in upper extremity, low t3 & t4, cause of high LHOvarian dysgenesis aka streak ovaries
Pt with jaundice and has symptoms of gall stone with increased alkaline phosphatase think the obstruction is atCommon bile duct
Pt with NO jaundice and has symptoms of gall stone with NORMAL alkaline phosphatase think the obstruction is atCystic duct
Brain tumor with bizarre plemorphic tumor cells accompanied by necrosis & hemorrhageGlioblastoma multiforme
Vibrio Cholera VS Vibrio vulnificusContaminated water vs Raw oysters
Pseudomonas pt leading to hypotensionSepsis -> ARDS -> Increased microvascular permeability -> Increased lymph flow, interstital colloid osmotic pressure, interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure
Cushing syndrome is a risk factor forOsteoporosis
Hypothyroidism tx causesDecrease TSH & T4, Increase T3
Unable to abduct arm, weakness of elbow flexion, diminished sensation over lateral arm and forearmC5/C6 Upper trunchof brachial plexes
Tinkering sound in the GIObstruction Do not give metoclopromaide
Increased leukocyte count with with increased bands and neutrophilsBacteria
Increased lymphocytesFungi, Virus, Intracellular bacterium
Increased eosinophilsParasite
Celiac trunk gives rise toSplenic artery body and tail of pancreas, Left gastric artery, Common hepatic artery
Splenic artery gives rise toShort gastric arteries fundus, Left gastroomental artery greater curvature of stomach
Common hepatic artery suppliesliver, gall bladder, lesser & curvature of stomach, head n neck of pancreas, proximal part of duodenum
Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase VS Anti-gliadin or transglutaminaseDiabetes VS Celiac
Placental alkaline phosphatase +Seminomas
Cortisol inhibits CRH throughGlucocorticoid receptor
Ataxia telangectasiaATM Gene mutation -> Tumor suppresor -> double stranded DNA breaks
Vaccination injection site reactionArthus reaction -> Type III hypersensitivity -> Immune complex formation
Isolated AST increased in a women with epigastric painIschemic heart disease
Isolated ALTLiver damage
Super antigen effect throughIL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma from T-helper cells
Brutons tyrosine kinase -> X-linked agamalobulinemiaBlocks b cell maturation, Low immunglobulin of all classes, No circulating b cells, Normal cell mediated
Thrombocytopenia with purpura, fever, Neurologic sx altered mental status,Microangioathic hemolytic anemia schistiocytes, Acute renal failureTHROMBOTIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA -> Deficiency of ADAMTS13
Medicare HMO,PPO,HFFS are private health placePlan C
Teratomas originPrimitive streak remnants
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