Kaplan 1

zomovefa's version from 2018-01-22 20:47


Question Answer
HPV vaccine covers6, 11 genital warts / 16, 18 cervical cancer
Working in farm and has sudden SOB, headache, shaking on tablechillsFarmer lung due to actinomyces mold -> TX corticosteroids -> Type III sensitivity
Meningiomas present with headache and are usually just carefully observed and treated. Related to?NF2
Pericarditis associated with coxsackie virus will showST segment elevations in all leads
MHC Class IIPresent antigenic fragments to T helper lymphocytes
High out put heart failures caused by mini atriovenous fistulas within the bonespagets disease , Multiple myeloma, McCune Albright syndrome
Complications of Pagets diseaseHearing(narrowing of the auditory canal), long bone fracture, osteogenic sarcom
Coughing at night, early satiety, chest pain, bloatingGERD-> Intermittent relaxation of the LES
Goblet cells foundTrachea -> Bronchi
Wilson uncle lung cancer -> Fatigue and chronic coughBronchoalveolar carcinoma -> subtype of adenocarcinoma -> non small cell
Parakeratosis VS HyperkeratosisRetain nuclei with incomplete keratinzation VS Qualitative abnormality of the keratin
Thyroglossal duct VS Branchial cleftMidline, movable VS Lateral neck, not movable
Acceleration- deaccleration accident(Car)Subdural -> bridging veins
Rinne Test bone>Air with weber test localizing to the left earLeft ear conductive hearing loss
Rinne test air>bone with weber test localizing to the left earRight ear sensoneuronal hearing loss
Aortic RegurgitationIsolated Systolic hypertension
Breast cancer risk increasesSclerosing Adenosis, Hyperplasia, Atypical Hyperplasia
Weakness of extension and lateral rotation of hipG.Maximus -> Inferior gluteal nerve
Weakness of adduction of hipObtruator nerve
High serum creatinine -> lactic acidosisMetformin contraindicated also SULFA Drug
Heart failure or hepaticTZD contraindicated
Hepatic FailureSulfonurea contraindicated
Gallstone complications usually in anyHemolysis condition TAILS
Horner syndrome usually inPancoast or carotid artery dissection
Aniscoriaasymmetrical pupil size-> usually due to brain hernitation on the oculomotor nerve
Most common non hodgkin lymphoma in an adult with vague symptoms and lymphadenopathyT14/18 -> Follicular lymphoma
90 degree shoulder abduction with sensation along the lateral armAxillary nerve
Metabollic acidosis pts to get rid of acid goes intoHyperventillation -> respiratory alkalosis
Most common cause of Bronchiolitis in infants and kidsrsv
Internal rotated leg injuryPosterior hip dislocation Sciatic
Externally rotated leg injuryAnterior hip dislocation Femoral
Causes of budd chiari syndromePolycythemia vera, Protein C or S deficiency, Factor V leiden mutation
Budd chiari syndrome due to mutation ofJAK2 gene
Two palpable abdominal masses in childrenNeuropblastoma(Increase catecholamin products in urine, pseudorosette pattern, firm irregular mass) & Wilms tumor(smooth mass with hematuria & epithelial blastemal & stromal elements)
Most superficial muscle of the neckPlatysma
Actinic keratosisPremalignant -> Squamous cell carcinoma of skin
IdentificationMayweather dad used to beat him as a child and now mayweather as a dad beats his child up
Preauricular cysts1st pharyngeal cleft defect -> removal can cause facial nerve damage -> problem with facial expressions
Barretsesophagus risk fxGERD, Caucasian, male, age40+, night time reflux, tobaco use, hiatal hernia, Elevated BMI
Brown sequard lesionOpposite hemisection lesion of the pain and temperature
Tongue deviatesHypoglossal nerve -> lick ur wound -> Lesion to the carotid triangle
If NADPH is increased thinkG6PD enzyme work
If oxidised glutathione is increased think ofGlutathione peroxidase works
If both NADPH & Oxidized glutathione increased but pt is presenting with hemolysis due to drugGlutathione reductase enzyme deficiency
+ Anti-HaV IgG,- Anti-HaV IgMPrior infection
Born with mutation but later in life develops another mutation causing diseaseLoss of heterozygosity
<5 yr old Fever for more than 5 days with no relief with acetamenophen, maculopapular rash, conjunctival injection,dry red lipsKawaski disease given aspirin can lead to Reyes syndrome with pt ends up with Influenza
Lumpy bumpyAcute PSGN
Wire loopingDiffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis
Tram track Membranoproliferative glomerlonephritis
Apple green birefringence kidneyAmylodosis
Spike and domeMembranous nephropathy
Inverted T wave, Prolonged p wave, ST segment elevation, sudden cardiac arrestBrugada Syndrome
Psorasis TXSun exposure
Long thoracic nerve(serratous anterior) VS DeltoidPast 90 degrees shoulder flexion VS 90degree shoulder abduction
Nuclear factor Kappa bMakes CYTOKINES!
Somatostatin decreaseTSH, GH, glucagon, gastrin, insulin, CCK
Mamilary Body damagedWenicke encepalopathy -> Horizontal nystagmus & ataxia
Diaphragmatic Hernia vs Hiatal herniaIntestine vs Stomach though diaphragm
Maternal diabetesPre-mature baby -> NRDS
Strawberry cervix(inflamed erythematous cervix)Trichmonas
Croup (Parainfluenza)Steeple Sign
Epiglotitis (H.Influenza)Thumbprint sign
Vesicles in different stagesChickepox
Thyroid follicles uptake iodine from blood usingNa dependent cotransporter
Rapidly growing neck mass, neoplastic lymphocytes, voice hoarsnessHashimoto thyroditis
AnemiaDecrease blood viscosity/ oxygen carrying capacity / Tissue PO2 / Vascular resistance -> Increase CO / Venous return / Arterial diameter
Shifting dulnessascites
adnexal mass, ascites, pleural effusionMeigs syndrome
HNPCMismatchrepair defect during G2 phase
Mouth openLateral ptyergold
Women sexually active or with hx of sexual disease presents with sudden onset right upper quadrant painFitz-hugh-Curtis Syndrome -> Rare complication of PID causing adhesions to the liver due to liver inflammation
OsteoprogetrinSlows osteoclast formation and action
Lekocyte Adhesion deficiencyCD 18
Fever worst at night but get better by morning, vetenarianBrucella melitensis
Cluster BBorderline, Histrionic, Anti-social, Narcissitic BLACK
Pre renal VS ATNHigh VS Low ADH
Ovarian vein drains toLeft renal vein -> IVC
UTI -> Sepsis -> DICDiffuse Cortical necrosis
X linked recessiveFather affected -> daughters / Mom carrier -> Half boys
Cluster COCD, Avoidant, Dependant IVY
Neuroblastoma in children abdominal mass crossing midlineMYCN
Most common liver tumor in childrenHepatoblastoma -> Screen family members for Familial adenomatous polyposis
Atopic dermatitisAs infant babies have lesion on extensor but older they have it on flexor
Good comphrension but impaired repetitionConduction aphasia -> Arcuate Fasciculus
PAX2 gene mutationRenal Coloboma syndrome (metanephric mesenchyme defect & coloboma)
Pappillary VS Medullary thyroid carcinomaCalcifications VS Amyloid(calcitonin)
Relapsing tick feverBorreliavin
Tetanus toxoid containing vaccine given onlyPt has not received his 3 vaccination or has been more than 10 years
GVHT mediated byT cells
Poliomyelitis VS Charcot marie toothAnterior Horns VS Anterior Horn & posterior columns
BCL 6Diffuse large cell lymphoma CD 20 marker
A1-antitrypisn histologyProtein accumulates in the liver and stains RED with PASS
Anterior Spinal arteryPain & Temp
Posterior Spinal arteryVibration
Magnesium hydroxide sxHyporeflexia
What vitamin responsible for odd chain fatty acidsVitamin B 12
Online imageHSV Cowdry bodies
Concomitant with drug abuseCluster B AA
Nephrotic syndrome unresponsive to steroids?Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
Burr cell(echinocytes)malnutrition, pyruvate kinase deficiency, uremia caused by chronic kidney disease
Pt with multiple bruises, joint contracturesHemophilia
Small bowel infarct VS Bowel ischemiaDiffuse VS localized
Radial nerve injuryMidshaft spiral groove of humerus
Onchocerca volvulus2nd leading cause of blindness
Carcinoid Syndrome associated withMEN 1
A whirl pattern or a birds beak pattern of the colon in CT scanVolvolus
Hepatic stellate cells called ITO cells found in the space of Disse fxStorage of Vitamin A
Ghrelin HormoneP/D1 cells of the fundus of the stomach
Hardy weinberg equationMating within the population is random
Esophageal varicesIncreased pressure between the left gastric vein and a branch of the Azygos vein
Vomiting, rice water diarrhea, peripheral neuropathyArsenic poisoning
Purple lacy appearing rash with pain and diminished sensationLivedo Reticularis associated with Polyarteritis nodosa
Abnormal stop codon causesTruncated non functional protein
N3 & N4 are deepest sleep wavesSleep walking Low frequency, High amplitude
Discomfort with filling of the bladder that is alleviated with voidingInterstitial cystitis Reddened patches hunners
Pt presenting with UTI, Hematuria, Kidney stones 3rd or 4th decade of lifeMedullary sponge kidney
New Large medistianl mass with cells 4-5 times bigger than lymphocytesDiffuse Large B cell lymphoma BCL 6
Alter your regular behavior when you are being studiedHwathorne effect
Cant calculate, cant write, left right disorientationGrestmann syndrome Left posterior cerebral artery
Palpable non tender mass in right upper quadrant, biconvex curvilinear echogenic appearancePorcelain gallbladder Broad calcification with gall bladder muscularis
Oval shaped hypopigmented lesionsTuberous sclerosis
Epidural anesthesiaSkin, Subcutaneous tissue, Superspinous ligament, Infraspinaous ligament, Ligamentoum flavum
Lumbar puncture CSF L4/L5Skin, Superficial fascia, Deep fascia, Supraspinous ligament, Interspinous Ligament, Intralaminar space, Epidural, POP Dura, Arachdnoid, Subarachnoid space
No detectable P wavesAtrial fibrillation
Cardiac Tamponade VS Constrictive percarditisCP has Kussumal sign and No Pulsus Paradox
MEN 1 VS MEN IIA& IIBTumor suppressor gene mutation VS Oncogene mutation
Young female with right knee erythema, warmth, fever, no traumeSeptic Arthritis n.gonnorhea
FSH activates aromatase withinGranulosa cells to produce estrogen during the follicular phase 1-14
SpecifictyPopulation without disease who have a negative test
SensitivityPopulation with disease who have a positive test
NAD aka Factor V & HEMATIN aka Factor XH. Influenza
Steeppage gait aka foot dropDorsiflexion defect -> Deep fibular (Peroneal)
Placenta accreta vs Placenta PreviaPainful VS Painless
Well defined, non encapsulated lesion with a central stellaate scar in a young healthy pt liverFocal nodular hyperplasia
High levels of what hormone prevent lactationEstrogen & Progesterone
Serous pericarditis sharp chest pain,decrease in systolic pressure during inspiration causesSLE, RA, Viral infection
Type 4 hypersensitivity usesT-lymphocyte mediated cytotoxcity NO ANTIBODIES
older adults Heterogeneous cellular infiltrates with classic nucleated steenberg cellsMixed celluraity hodgkin lymphoma
Collecting ductSecrets k & h ions making body hypokalemic and alkalaotic
C.botlinmInhibits release of acetycholine from presynaptic terminals
OTC VS CPS DeficiencyOTC elevated uracil & orotic acid
Proteus vs PseudomonasOxidase - Non lactose fermenter VS Oxidase + Nonlactose fermenter
B2 used by what enzymesPyruvate dehydrogenase, Alpha ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
Sinosoidal dilation in liverSeen in Right sided hear failure
Aorta & throacic duct12
Mallory Weiss VS Boerhaave SyndromeNo chest xray abnormalities VS Chest x ray abnormalities
PE originates fromDeep vessels of the leg femoral
+ Babiski sign in adult meansCorticospinal tract lesion -> Medulla
Pts from either New Mexico, Utah, Arizona, Colorado with respiratory depression who have been exposed to ratsHantavirus (Bunyavirdae)
High fever, septiciemia, Conjunctivitis, buboes(hemorraghic lymph nodes)Yersenia Pestic -> Bubonic plague
Treacher Collins1st & 2nd arch,pouch,cleft defect
Superior pancreaticoduodenal artery VS Inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteryCeliac trunk VS SMA
Pt from southeast asia with recurrent chocolate colorored hemoptysis & pulmonary nodules with flukesParagonimus Westermani
CohortGroup divided into exposure vs non exposure and followed for years to check for relative risk
Case controlDiseased vs Non diseased and ask for exposure -> Odds ratio


Question Answer
Apolipoprotein B-100Binds to LDL receptors on liver
Apolipoprotein B-48Binds to VLDL receptors -> Found on chylomicrons to facilitate chylomicron secretion
Apolipoprotein EFacilitate uptake of cholestrol remnants
Apolipoprotein C-IIProper fx of lipoprotein lipase(breaks down triglycerides in chylomicros & VLDL->LDL)
Apolipoprotein A-IActivates lecithin cholestrol acyltransferase


Question Answer
Inflammatory carcinoma of breastLymphadenopathy & Peu da orange
Invasive ductal carcinoma of breastFirm fibrous mass most common breast carcinoma with poor prognosis
Invasive lobular carcinomaMultiple small lesions on mammogram but not felt -> biopsy shows small cells arranged singlely in a row
Medullary carcinoma of breastSoft fleshy mass with poorly differentiated cells and highly lymphocytic infiltration
Pagets disease of breastPainful ecezmeatous raw itchy nipples, red scaly lesion over breat and large cells with prominient nuclei and pale cytoplasm resembling hollow
Mobile, multinodular tumor, with overlying skin looking stretched firm no tender mass in an adultPhyllodes tumor


Question Answer
BUN/Creatinine ratioBUN / Creatine
BUN/Creatinine ratio more than 20Pre renal
BUN/Creatinine ratio 15-20Post renal
BUN/Creatinine ratio less than 15Renal


Question Answer
Gynecomastia, high androgens, normal AFPLeydig cell tumors
Large cell with abundant cytoplasm and central nuclei, painless
testicular mass
Testicular mass, painful, elevated HCG & AFPNon-seminoma
High AFP, Testicular tumor in kids with simple cuboidal epithelium with papillary invaginations around the central vessel(schiller duval bodies)Yolk sac tumor
Testicular tumor that cause gynecomastia with increased estrogenSertoli cells
MCC of pelvic mass within 1st trimesterCorpus Luteal cyst
MCC of ovarian massFollicular cyst
In young girls commonly, Elevated AFP, mass shows ~tubular spaces lined with flattened cuboidal cellsas well as central vessels with papillary structuresYolk sac tumor
Cant make fistRadial nerve damage