Kant's Moral Argument- well it's not really an argument but you know what I mean...

courtleigh's version from 2015-05-13 20:18

Section 1

Question Answer
Kant quote in Practical Reason on the moral law "Two things fill the mind with ever new increasing admiration and awe... the starry heavens above me and the moral law within me"
What type of argument is itA posteriori (after sense experience) and inductive (even if premises are true, the conclusion may be false)
What is the moral argument A family of arguments, it includes Aquinas' fourth eay and CS Lewis who argued for objective moral values
What was CS Lewis' argumentGod must necessarily exist if objective moral values exist. There are objective moral values, therefore God exists.

Part A's

Question Answer
What are the phenomenal and noumenal realms?The phenomenal world is only how we experience the world (Vardy analogy of rose coloured specs); the noumenal world is how it actually is
Background of Kant's moral ArgumentBelieved his conception of Ethics pointed towards God. It was not meant to be a free standing argument.
Hyp ImpDuty as a means to an end
What does the categorical imperative rely on?Each individual being an autonomous being
Kant quote on man making himself etc. In Critique of Practical Reason"man himself must make or have made himself into whatever... or he could not be held responsible for it"
Due to the hypothetical imperative showing that the categorical imperative relies on autonomy, what does it show?we do not get our morality from God
What does Kant seek to do with the cat. imperative?Find the "supreme principle of morality" (Kant)
Cat ImpDuty as an end in itself
What are the three maxims which are 3 versions of the imperative?Universalizability; treat people as an end in themselves not as a means to an end; only act in way if you were in the Kingdom of ends
What doe we learn about from the CI (palmer quote)We are "under moral obligation" (M Palmer- the question of God)
Why should we live virtuous lives?For duties sakes- whether this brings about the Summum Bonum is irrelevent (as it is deontological)
Problem that arises about unachievabilty of Summum Bonum (quote)Why should we carry out our duty if we cannot achieve it? "is it a practical impossibility?" (M Palmer, the question of God)
What produces the summum bonum?When happiness and duty combine is when the highest good is being obtained
How does Kant respond to the fact that the summum bonum seems unachievable- we do not see it in this lifeWe conclude from this that there is nothing in our duty that can cause our eventual happiness (due to corruption etc.) HOWEVER Kant responds by saying that as we ought to be able to achieve the Summum Bonum, we should be able to achieve it- "Ought implies can" (Kant)
What do we conclude about the Summum Bonum being achieveable?We musy postulate the existence of a being who is able to achieve the Summum Bonum- this can only be provided by God
Kant quote on God"I am morally certain that there is a God" (Kant, Critique of Pure Reason)

Part B's

Question Answer
JL Mackie
Valid reason that is ought fallacy as described by Hume
"We ought to promote the highest good implied we should seek to promote... this does require that... the highest good should be possible"
What does Brian Davies say about postulating the existence of God?Why should we postulate the existence of a god, why not a "lesser God" or "Angel"
What 3 parts of the mind did Sigmund Freud believe 'existed'?ID (animalistic desires)
Ego (part of the mind influenced by external events)
Superego (The part of the mind that interacts with human reason and makes decisions)
What did Freud call religion- derived from the 3 parts of the mindCalled religion an "universal obsessional neurosis"
Freud's view on ReligionIt is a way for people to satisfy their desires. Their life becomes meaningful and the world ordered. The answers religion provides appeals to this thought of the Summum Bonum. Provides us with a reason to reward good behaviour.
Palliative care
Kant response to Freud about the Summum Bonum being desirableThe summum bonum is not a concept one should want to achieve- that would lead to the hypothetical imperative. One should carry out his duty and be virtuous and the Summum Bonum ought to be achieved through that.
Karl Popper response to FreudThere is no evidence of religion being an obsessional neurosis- if it is a scientific observation it requires evidence; it is not a falsifiable theory because it is hypothetical
Instead of doing good to achieve the Summum Bonum, why else could people do good?Simply to survive, it is an evolutionary trait rising out of society- "Do you really mean to tell me the only reason you try to be good is to gain God's reward"- Richard Dawkins (The God Delusion)
What is a more recent version of the Moral Argument?Divine Command Theory- we receive morality from God.

Pithy Scholarly Quotes

Question Answer
Mel Thompson (Philosophy of religion) on Ought"There are certain things one ought to do"
Mel Thompson (Philosophy of religion)- where does gulty arise from?"Guilt may arise when one recognizes what one has done what one believes is wrong"
Mel Thompson on morality (Philosophy of religion)"Morality is ratoinal and objective"
Mel Thompson on where morality comes from (Philosophy of religion)"moral rules may be thr product of human society and choice"
Alister MCGrath (Twilight of Atheism) on why religion was invented (bear in mind he believes in God)Religion was a human invention to explaon otherwise puzzling aspects of nature
Alister McGrath on why atheism (Twilight of Atheism) was 'created'"Atheism was a repsonse to the desire for autonomy
Karl Marx on why God was created (2 quotes)"The idea of God is a human attempt to cope with the harshness of material life" "God is simply a projection of human concerns"
Marx on Humans and making religion"Humans make religion; religion does not make humans"
Collin Brown (Christianity and Western Thought) on reason"They must do what reason tells them to do is right"
Collin Brown (Christianity and Western Thought) on imperativesAll imperatives are expressed by and ought and indicate the relation of an objective law of reason to a will"
Collin Brown (Christianity and Western Thought) on Kant's position"Kant's position has the merit of making the cirtue of an action not dependent upon its consequences"
Michael Palmer (The question of God) on men and woman moral obligation"Men and women are rational agents who perceive they are under moral obligation"
Michael Palmer (The question of God) describing the summum bonumThe Summum Bonum is in fact a practical impossibility
Michael Palmer on how we come to God from Summum Bonum"Some other agency must be postulated capable of bringing about the Summum Bonum- this is God"
Kant (Critique of Practical Reason) on ought"Ought implies can"
Kant (Critique of Practical Reason) on virtue"Virtue and happiness together constitute posession of the highest good in a person"
Kant (Critique of Pure reason) on his connviction"My conviction is not logical, but a moral certainty"