Kantian ethics

archiebw's version from 2016-05-26 19:58



Question Answer
Kant's theory is d------------Deontological.
To Kant, what pair of jargonistic words describe a moral statement?A priori synthetic.
What does a priori mean?Able to be deduced theoretically and not from observation.
What does synthetic mean?Determinable by recourse to experience.
What is the one of the principal works in which Kant outlines his ethical theory?'Critiques of Practical Reason'
What does 'a priori synthetic' imply?The statement is gained by reason, but its opposite is not a contradiction
What is the quotation wherein Kant sings the praises of good will?“It is impossible to conceive anything at all in the world, […] which can be taken as good without qualification, except a good will.”
How would Kant evaluate you if you gave to a beggar out of compassion?He would think you performed a good act, but you were not virtuous.
What quotation of Kant's explains the name of the categorical imperative?“If the action would be good simply as a means to something else, then the imperative is hypothetical; but if the action is represented as good in itself… then the imperative is categorical.”
How would Kant judge a person wanting to go on a diet?He would not like their use of the hypothetical imperative; he would not like that they wanted to go on a diet to lose weight.
What does Kant say is the one categorical imperative?Universability or “act[ing] only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.”
What would Kant say to the statement that a white lie does not harm anybody?It harms mankind generally.
What is Kant's pragmatic thinking behind universability?If everyone acted disregarding moral law, society would be intolerable.
What is the second formulation of the categorical imperative?To treat humans as ends in themselves.
To what does Kant surprisingly say we have a duty, as long as it fits within moral law?To seek others' happiness.
What is the third formulation of the categorical imperative?Act as if in a kingdom of ends.
What is Kant's argument against determinism?We have a moral law inside which tells us we ought to make decisions, and 'ought' implies 'can'.
What is "a being who is capable of acting with reference to right and wrong"?A moral agent.
What is a maxim?The principle behind an action.
Between what two types of duty does Kant distinguish, what do these mean, and what are two examples respectively?Perfect and imperfect duties, a duty that always holds true and a duty that can be applied in a particular time and place and 'do not kill' and 'give to charity' respectively.
Through his ethical theory, what idea did Kant wish to expel, and according to who?The idea of morality as a set of externally imposed duties, and Allen Wood.
Between what two types of contradiction does Kant distinguish, and what is an example for both respectively?Logical contradiction and practical contradiction, and 'It is permissible to own a slave' and 'It is permissible to break a promise.'
Why should we treat rational agents as ends in themselves?Because their rationality means they will themselves to be an end.
To what faith did Kant's parents subscribe?Lutheran Pietism.
To the works of whom was Kant introduced by a teacher, and how are their theories related?Isaac Newton, and Kant speaks of universal moral laws whilst Newton speaks of universal natural laws.
Who has proposed a theory which he claims is a descendant of Kantian ethics, what is it called, on what does it say action should be based, what part of Kantian ethics does it reject and what story is relevant?Jürgen Habermas, 'discourse ethics', discussion and expression of one's interest, dualism, and that contained in Plato's dialogue 'Crito'.
Is Kant's ethical theory cognitive or non-cognitive?Cognitive.


Question Answer
What might be considered a strength of the theory by the general public?That the principles prohibit acts commonly thought of as immoral.
What is a strength of the second formulation?It gives human intrinsic worth, which goes against exploitation.
What is a situation which Kant would find very difficult, which highlights a weakness?Managing a hospital's budget.
What is a weakness of universability, and what is an example of this?Two situations could be said never to be the same; it could be said murder should not be lumped in with euthanasia.
What is the part of the theory most at odds with common thought, and thus could be a weakness?Compassion as intrinsically bad.
What two things did Hegel criticise about the theory?It did not provide enough detail to effect decision making and denies human nature.
How did Hegel demonstrate a paradox in Kant's thinking?He said that if everybody helped the poor, there would be no more poor to help, so beneficence would be impossible if universalised, rendering it immoral according to Kant's thinking.
Which type of philosophers has alluded to Kant's theory on not treating people as means to back up their own theory, and who is an example?Feminist philosophers, and Catharine MacKinnon.
Who argues we can get round the inflexibility in Kant's theory if we formulate the maxims differently, and what does she give as an example?Julia Driver, and 'I will lie to save an innocent life'.
What did a French psychoanalyst argue could be universalised, and what was his name?Pursuit of 'jouissance'. meaning sexual pleasure or enjoyment, and Jacques Lacan.
Which philosopher argues that actions from duty lack certain moral value, what example does he give and in which paper did he write this?Michael Stocker, visiting a friend in hospital out of duty and not out of friendship and 'The Schizophrenia of Modern Ethical Theories'.
Who defends the perception of 'duty' as cold and impersonal, and what does she stress it is?Marcia Baron, and a secondary motive which sets conditions, rather the prompts specific actions.
Which German philosopher challenged Kantian ethics on a basic level, what did he say and what parallel did he draw?Arthur Schopenhauer, that ethical theories should not assert what ought to be done but try to interpret and explain what is done, and between virtue and aesthetics.
How do Kant's and Nietzsche's views fundamentally differ?Kant believes justice is dealt out in another world, whilst Nietzsche believes it must be realised in this world.
To the Catholic Church, how does Kant contradict his claim that knowledge is a priori?He implies it is partly dependent on humans, who have not always existed.
Which Catholic priest prefers Virtue Ethics, and why?Servais Pinckaers, and because it regards acting morally as a joy, so morality is not set against nature.
What is a quotation that unwittingly highlights a flaw in Kant's idea of a 'practical contradiction', why and who wrote it?"If everyone lied, no one would be deceived because everyone would expect everyone else to lie", Thomas Daby, and sixty percent of people cannot go ten minutes without lying.
To which type of people is Kant's theory of 'moral agents' easily malleable?Racists, misogynists and arguably speciesists.
How might Kant's and Hume's theory be combined, who named this approach and what did he call it?By either rationally reflecting on our sentiments or empathetically reflecting on our principles, John Rawls and 'reflective equilibrium'


Question Answer
How did Kant generally view sex, and why?As degrading, because it involves treating people as means.
What was Kant's view on animal cruelty?It was only bad by virtue of the development of an immoral disposition, because animals do not have rationality.

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