Just War quotes

courtleigh's version from 2015-05-19 06:45

Section 1

Question Answer
Aquinas on what a just war is"A just war is one to be described as one that avenges wrongs, when a nation or state has to be punished for refusing to make amends for wrongs inflicted by its subjects, or to restore what is seized unjustly"
According to Francisco de Vitoria when is war just?When a nation trues ti correct a violation of its rights
What does Francisco Suarez believe a nation has the right to do?The right to punish those who are responsible for the injustice
What did Hugo Groitus and Emerich de Vattel belive justified war?Prevention of injustice (must be certain of facts though)
what is the UN Sec Councils view on pre-emptive strikes?They are wrong- unless they have been clearly authorized in advance
JS Mill on whether we can intervene in another countres conflict- even if it is to try to help"The members of a political community must seek their own freedom" "They cannot be set free by external force"
US Catholic Bishops on just war"Every party should acknowledge the limits of its Just Cause" "only limited means in pursuit of its objective" i.e. no excessive force
6 Factors of Jus Ad Bello?1) No excessive force 2)Legitimate authority 3) Right intention 4)Likelihood of success 5)Proportionality 6)Last Resort
What did Augustine believe right intention was?Intention of achieving peace

Section 2

Question Answer
Factors of Jus In BelloProportionality i.e. soldiers use right amount of force to achieve end they seek; Discrimination and non-combat immunity; Obey all laws on international weapons; Fair treatment of prisoners of war; no means malum in se (intrinsically wrong) e.g. mass rape, genocide;
How can civilian deaths be justified?Collateral damage
US Catholic Bishops on taking lives on innocent "The lives of innocent civilians may never be taken directly. Regardless of the purpose for doing so"- how do we define directly? Can bomb school if firing rockets???
How does Groitus define the innocent?IF A justly attacks B, all of state A are innocent and all of B are guilty of aggression
Robert Holmes' categories on the people involved in war?1) Initiators of war 2) Agenst of war- military 3) Cotributors to war effort- munition maker; 4) Those who approve/ encourage it 5) Those who neither contribute nor support the war (Doesn't consider the question of conscription)
What does Geneva Convention say about prisoners of war?Should be kept in benevolent quarantine, away from battle until the war ends, when they should be exchanged for ones own POW- do terrorists deserve this protection
What is a reprisal?When a country violates ju in bello while at war with another country 'B'. B thien retaliates with its own violation of jus in bello in an attempt to make A obey the rules. Doesn't seem to work;seems to just escalate violence and make destruction even more indiscriminate

Section 3

Question Answer
4 Factors of Jus Post Bellum1) Proportionality- reasonable peace treaty, do not seek to humiliate i.e. no unconditional surrender- civilians should be protected; no economic sanctions after war;
2) Discrimination- distinction between the leaders and soldier and civilians of a country;
3) rights violation- settlement should secure the rights to life and liberty, territory and sovereignty- esp. any violations that may have been a trigger for war- the war and peace treaty will have an improving affect on a country;
4) Punishment- those who violated laws etc. should be held accountable and face and international war crimes tribunal


Question Answer
What is realismmorality of the sate is separate from personal morality i.e. individual morality do not have to apply to state e.g. do not murder doesn't apply in warfare
What should the state do at all costs?protect self interests
What type of approach is itMoral Dualism
What would realists say about moral principlesThey should still be applied e.g. treat prisoners fairly
What did Reinhold Niebuhr sayHumans are esentially sinful and concerned with self interests- thus war is inevitable but it may be lesser of two evils to uphold justice e.g. fight Nazis


Question Answer
What is ethical pacifismWar is wrong on humanitarian grounds- right to life; not dependent on religious beliefs
What is absolute pacifismNever acceptable to use force under any circumstances- "those who live by the sword die by the sword"- jesus said to peter maybe
Conditional pacifismwar is evil but sometimes necessary
Selective pacifismmatter of the degree of war- depends on how serious and the scale of the war taking place- war to dispose of an evil leader is acceptable; a chemical one isn;t
Active oacifismactively helping the war but not through violence