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Julias History Vocab For Final

Updated 2008-01-17 20:29

Chapter 1

Question Answer
geographythe study of people, their enviroments + recourses avalible to them
latitudemeasures distance north to south of equator
longitudemeasures distance east to west of prime merridian
prehistorytime before writing
anthropologythe study of people's origins + developement
culturethe way of life that is handed down generation to generation
archaelogythe study of past people + culture
artifactobjects made by humans
technologyskills + tools people use
historianpeople who study the past
nomadpeople who have no set home who move following herds + ripening fruit
glaciersheets of solid ice that covered continents during ice ages

chapter 5

Question Answer
shrineareas dedicated to the honor of gods or goddesses
frescowatercolor wall paintings done of wet plaster, last a long time
straitnarrow water passage
Trojan Wararound 1250 BC the Greeks attacked the Trojans. Homer told the story in his book the Iliad. He claims that a young prince of troy, Paris, kidnapped a Spartan queen, Helen, and that they were fighting over her. However now historians think that the fight may have been more fueled by control over trade routs. After 10 years the Greeks won and burned troy to the ground
polisa Greek city-state
acropolisa large hill in the middle of the city that housed the important buildings and temples to the gods. All other things spread out around it (houses, etc.) the one in Athens is the most famous
monarchyone person has central power that is inherited
aristocracya government run by the land owning elite
oligarchypower is in the hands of the small business-class elite
phalanxformation of heavily armed soldiers that worked together
helotstate owned slaves forced to work the land, not citizens and not allowed to vote, usually conquered people
democracygovernment run by the people, all citizens can vote
tyrantpeople who gain or keep power by force
legislaturea law making body
alliancea formal agreement between 2+ nations or powers to cooperate and come to one another’s defense
Marathona large Greek battle against the Persians, the Athenians were outnumbered and hardly any of them were trained soldiers but their fearlessness led them to victory
direct democracya large number of citizens take part in the day to day operations of the government
stipendfixed salary for people who hold office
ostracismto banish someone who was thought to be a treat to Athenian democracy, every year they would write someone’s name on a piece of pottery the person with the most votes would be banished for some amount of time
jurya panel of citizens who have the authority to make the final decision on a trial
Salamisprincipal city of ancient Cyrus
Delian Leaguea Athenian dominated democracy league of many city-states to combat the Persians
logicrational thinking
rhetoricthe art of skillful speaking
tragedya play that tells of human suffering and disaster
comedyhumorous mocking plays designed to be funny
hubrisexaggerated pride or self-confidence
assassinationthe murder of a public figure usually for political reasons
heliocentricthe belief in a sun centered solar system the idea was first suggested by astronomer Aristarchus 2000 years before Galileo
Macedoniamountainous region of Greece that bordered the Aegean sea, this was the homeland of Alexander the Great
Hellenistic civilizationthe lasting legacy of Alexander or the age after him in which many parts of the world were now connected, many new thinkers came out of this period and women gained new rights, this age continued though the rise of Rome
Alexandriathe city at the heart of the Hellenistic world, huge seaport, lots of trade, center of learning, founded by Alexander the Great, known for library and lighthouse (one of the 7 wonders of the ancient world)
stoicisma new philosophy that preached taking whatever life gave you to avoid disappointments, it preached high moral standings and equality for women it was founded by Zeno and has influenced many roman and Christian thinkers

chapter 5 people

Question Answer
Heinrich Schliemanna German businessman who set out to prove that the Trojan war really happened by finding troy after much searching he found the spot that most historians now think was the real troy.
Homerhe wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey about the Trojan war legend tells us that he was an old blind man that went around telling his poems
Dracostrict athinian lawmaker, he ws appointed to draw up code of law
Solonhe was appointed first chief official of Athens, he worked to make the system more fair by outlawing debt slavery, gave normal citizens higher government jobs, gave the assembly more power and encouraged the exporting of goods like olive oil and wine to help the farming class, even after this tyrants still rose to power
Pisistratusa tyrant reformer who built many great things along with lending money to farmers, he also gave citizens more power.
cleistenesanother plotical reformer, he turned the assembley into a true organized legeslature, 500 reps. chosen by citizens to oversee council, assembley was made of all citizens over 30 years old
Zeushead greek god, father of many heros, lived on mt olympus + controlled everything
Darius Istarted war against greece bucause he felt that athens was a threat, defeated at marathon
Themistoclesathininan leader saved greece convinced athens to build fleet was later ostracized for having too much power
Xerxesson of Darius, he felt that he had to contue his fathers work, mustered huge army but was defeated by athens's fleet
Periclesgreat athinian leader during golden age, democ. flourished, atherns turned into post powerful city-state + turned tinto a great center of learning + art; started war died of plague
Leonidasgreat warrior king of sparts defended pass of thermopylae with 300 men
Herodutusfather of history documanted persian wars with facts and different view points
Pheidipidesfirst marathon runner
Socratesoutspoken critic od sophists he believed in reason and would question people was later executed for corrupting youth bio written be student plato
Platostudent of socrates, believed that rational thinking would solve adnything believed in one ruling class, created school for logic, wrote republic
Aristotlefamous student of plato thought that best rule was be one good leader, thought that reason determined knowledge set up school to study all branches of knowledge, the lyceum, first european univs. based off his work, taught alexander