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Joints

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kshinsky's version from 2017-07-30 17:19

Section 1

Question Answer
joint structureas strength increases, mobility decreases, determines ROM
two classifications of jointsfunctional, structural
functional jointssynarthrosis, amphiarthrosis, diarthrosis
structural jointsbony, fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial
synarthrosissutures in skull, gumphosis, synchondrosis, synosthosis
amphiarthrosissyndesmosis, symphysis
diarthrosismonaxial, biaxial, triaxial
monaxialelbow and knee
biaxialwrist
triaxialhip and knee
memorize

Section 2

Question Answer
articular cartilagefound in synovial joints and articular capsules, surfaces lubricated by synovial fluid
synovial fluidproteoglycans secreted by fibroblasts
synovial fluid functionslubrication, shock absorption, nutrients
accessory structurescartilages, fat pads, ligaments, tendons, bursae
meniscusfibrocartilage found in knee, allows stable movement of knee
fat padsoutside of joint capsule, provide protection
ligamentsconnect one bone to another
spraintorn collagen fibers in ligaments
tendonsconnect muscle to bone, stabilize the joint, align the joint
bursaepockets of synovial fluid, where tendons and ligaments rub
factors that stabilized synovial jointslimiting ROM by collagen fibers, meniscus, fat pads, muscles, tendons
dislocationcomplete misalignment
subluxationpartial dislocation
memorize

Section 3

Question Answer
movementslinear, angular, rotation
planes of motionmonaxial, diaxial, triaxial, gliding
angular movementflexion, extension, hypertensions
fleixonreduce angle
extensionincrease angle
hyperextensionabnormal degree of extension
abductionaway from the body
adduction towards the body
cicumductioncircullar motion without roation, ex hip and shoulder
pronationrotation of forearm, palms posterior
supinationforearm anatomical position
inversiontwisting the foot medially
eversiontwisting the foot laterally
dorisflexionlifting toes, moving foot upward
plantar flexionpointing toes, moving foot downward
oppositionthumb moving towards fingers/palm
reoppostionthumb moving away from fingers/palm
protractionmandible pushing foward
retractionmandible pulling back
elevationmandible upward
depressionmandible downward
lateral flexionbends vertebral column from side to side
functional classification of synovial jointsgliding, hinge, condylar joint, saddle, pivot, ball and socket
glidingmonaxial movement, between carpal bones
hingemonaxial, ex elbow and knee
condylar jointbiaxial, ex: occipital condyle and atlas
saddlebiaxial, two concave surfaces ex: 1st metacarpal joint and triapheum
pivotmonaxial rotation, ex: c2
ball and sockettriaxial, ex: hip and shoulder
memorize

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