ilm1993's version from 2017-06-08 11:38

Section 1

Question Answer
Joints are?are also called articulations, which is where two bones meet.
Joints have two fundamental functions?they give our skeleton mobility and they hold it together, sometimes playing a protective role.
Synarthroses are?joints that are immovable.
Amphiarthroses are?joints that are slightly movable.
Diarthroses are?are freely movable joints.
Fibrous joints are?joints that are joined by fibrous tissue, specifically dense fibrous connective tissue, however no joint activity.
Sutures are?seams that occur only between noes of the skull; classified as a fibrous joint.
Syndesmoses are?the bones that are connected exclusively by ligaments, cords, or bands of fibrous tissue.
Gomphses joints are?a peg-n-socket joint; fibrous, the only example is the tooth in the gums.

Section 2

Question Answer
Cartilaginous joints are?the articulating bones are united by cartilage. They have NO joint cavity
Two types of cartilagous joints are?synchondroses and symphses.
A synchondroses joint is?a bar or plate of hyaline cartilage unites the bone; synarthrotic.
A common example of sychondroses' are?epiphyseal plates in the long bones of children.
A symphyses is?the articular surface of the bones are covered with articular [hyaline] cartilage; amphiarthrotic
Synovial joint is?are those joints in which the articulating bones contain a joint cavity that is filled with synovial fluid; diarrhetic
Common examples of symphysis include?examples include invertebral disks and sternum


Question Answer
A bursa is?a flattend fibrous sac lined with synovial membrane and containing a thin film of synovial fluid.
A tendon sheath is?essentially an elongated bursa that wraps around a tendon subjected to friction.
What are examples of friction-reducing synovial structures?Bursae and tendon sheath
What is Joint stability?resistance offered by various musculoskeletal tissues that surround a skeletal joint. Lack of this can indicate a torn or overstretch ligament
Muscle tone is accomplished by?Muscle tendons across joints acting as stabilizing factors; Tendons that are kept tight at all times by muscle tone

Section 3

Question Answer
The muscle's origin is? attached to the immovable [is the less movable] bone.
The muscle's insertion is?attached to the movable bone.
Nonaxial movements are?movements that are slipping movements, no axis.
Uniaxial movements are?movements that occur in one plane.
Biaxial movements are?movements in two planes.
Multiaxial movements are?movements that occur in or around all three planes of space and axes.
There are three types of GENERAL movements, which are?gliding, angular, and rotation. (transverse, saggital, frontal)
Gliding movements?occur when on flat, or nearly flat bone surface slips or glides over another; intercarpal and intertarsal, and articular processes of vertebrae.
Angular movements?increase or decrease the angle between two bones.

Section 4

Question Answer
Flexion is?a bending movemen decreasing the angle between the articulating bonest; bending the head to the chest or bending the body from a straight angle to a bent angle.
Extension is?the reverse of flexion, increasing the angle between the articulating bones; such as straightening a flexed limb.
Hyperextension is?excessive extension such as extending the head beyond the anatomical postion.
Abduction is?movement of a limb away from the body; such as raising the arm laterally, out to the sides.
Adduction is?the opposite of abduction, which is the movement of the limb towards the body; such as bring the arm close the body.
Circumduction is?moving a limb so that it describes a cone in space; circular movements of the arm.
Rotation is?turning the bone around on its own axis; such hip, shoulder and between atlas and axis.

Section 5

Question Answer
Supination and Pronation is?movements regarding the radius and the ulna.
Supination is?rotating the hand so that it is in anatomical position.
Pronation is?is rotating the hand so the it's facing posteriorly or inferiorly.
Dorsiflexion is?lifting the foot superiorly, towards your shin.
Plantar is?depressing your foot inferiorly, such as a ballerina points her toe.
Inversion is?moving the sole of the foot so that it turns medially.
Eversion is?is moving the foot so that it turns laterally.
Elevation is?lifting a body part superiorly; such as shrugging your shoulders.
Depression is?moving an elevated part inferiorly; such as chewing your gum, the down movement is depression.
Opposition is?is a special movement involving the thumh; when you touch your thumb to the end of each finger.
Dorsiflexion: foot towards tibia
Plantarflexion: foot away from tibia

Section 6

Question Answer
There are six synovial joints, which are?Plane, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle and ball-in-socket.
Plane joints are?articular surfaces are flat, only short nonaxial movements; only non-axial joint
What is an example of a plane joint?intercarpal, intertarsal joints and joints between vertebral articular proccesses.
Hinge joints are?the cylindrical end of one bone conforms to a through shaped surface on another; allows extension and flexion (uniaxial)
Example of a hinge joint includeolecranon (elbow)
Pivot joints are?the rounded end of one bone conforms to a "sleeve" or ring composed of bone of another; uniaxial (circumduction)
Examples of pivot joints are?joint between the atlas and axis; proximal radioulnar joint
Condyloid joints are?The oval surfaces of one bone fits into the complemtary depression of another bone; biaxial and all angular movements,
Example of condyloid joint?knuckle and wrist joints
Saddle joints are?similar to condyloid joints, but greater freedom of movement
What is an example of a saddle joint?the carpometacarpal joints of thumb.
Ball and Socket joints are?spherical or hemispherical head of one bone articulates with the cuplike socket of another; multiaxial
What is an example of ball and socket joint?femur to hip bone; shoulder


Question Answer
TMJ?Hinge movements and lateral extension
What are sprains?Stretch or torn ligaments
What are cartilage surgeries?snap and pop of overstretched cartilage
What are subluxations?partial dislocation of joints
Dislocation?When bones are out of alignment
Bursitis?inflammation of bursa that occurs with a blow or friction
What are sprains?Stretch or torn ligaments
Arthritis?Joint pain and stiffness
Osteoarthritis?years of abrasion and compression causing increased production of metalloproteinase enzymes that break down cartilage