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IV Fluid Therapy

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donna17's version from 2017-06-02 17:51

Section 1

Question Answer
Crystalloidsare solutions composed of electrolytes and water
Hypotonic Provides salt and H2O. Moves fluid into cell to hydrate cell; results in intracellular expansion; decreases intravascular osmolality
Examples of Hypotonic solutions 1/2 NS, 2.5% dextrose, D5W
Hypertonic Replaces sodium. Pulls fluid from cell and shifts into intravascular space, resulting in interstitial dehydration. Increases intravascular osmolality.
Examples of Hypertonic Solutions3% NS, D51/2NS, D51/4NS, D5NS, D5LR,D10LR,D50W, D10W, D20W
Isotonic Provides hydration. Maintains same osmotic pressure as blood; therefore, cellular components are unchanged.
Examples of Isotonic solutions0.9% NS, LR, D5W(isotonic in bag only)
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Section 2

Question Answer
Never use LR ifthe patient is alkaloid (a normal liver converts the lactate to bicarbonate) or if the patient has liver disease(a diseased liver produces lactic acid and ammonia as by-products
Hypertonic solutions are commonly given to all postoperative patients to prevent severe cellular edema
Colloids are known as plasma expanders or volume expanders and can be artificial (dextran,Hespan) or made from blood products (albumin, Plasmanate)
Colloids cause an increase in osmotic pressure which causes fluid to be drawn from the interstitial space into the intravascular space and results in an increase in total vascular blood volume
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