Italian Sentence Builder

antoniasd's version from 2017-11-17 18:08

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Types of Sentences:

Sentence Type Name Description of what I want to say
Simple Declarative (Indicativo)to state a fact, an idea or an argument: making a statement to communicate information; indicates certainty,or objectivity (si avrà l’indicativo dopo verbi, nomi o aggettivi che esprimono certezza o obiettività)
Interrogative Sentences ?Ask a question
ImperativeGive a command, make a request or advise someone to do something (or not do)
Exclamatory ! bold statement, excited, etc..
Declarative with more nuance (Congiuntivo)to say something about more than one thing, using coordinating or subordinating conjunctions to show contrast, likeness, aspect of time, indicate conclusion, coordination, or the opposite of, location between,of condition(if) etc.. (si avrà il congiuntivo dopo verbi, nomi o aggettivi che esprimono opinioni, sentimenti, desideri e volontà personali.)

When is it taking place?

Italian Verb Tensedescribe its use
Presente l'azione principale (il verbo) avviene nello stesso momento (in the one and the same moment) in cui si parla/si legge/si scrive/si dice, ecc.
l'Imperfetto "Im" (not) perfect, not definite no beginning or end,used for describing an ongoing action (duration), or recurring (repeated) action in the past
Passato Prossimo ( Il Perfetto)Perfect, definite used for describing an action with a definite end (fine), that is completed, finished, accomplished (cioe`compliuto) but related to the present
Trapassato ----------( Il Perfetto)used in a secondary clause, usually after dopo che, prima, quando. appena (che) describing an action that took place before the action in the main clause
Passato Remoto -- ( Il Perfetto)used in the south of Italy to describe an action in the past with a separateness with the present, and has precise beginning and end/ start and finish
Trapassato Remoto ( Il Perfetto)rarely used, and if used, used in formal register or for literary purposes in written language only, in cases similar to Trapassato/Past Perfect above
Il Futuro used to descibe an action in the future, usually with "tra una settimana, fra un anno, fra due mese, l'anno prossimo" or similar approximate description of a future time frame, Note Bene: if no time frame will be given, normally you would choose to use the Present Tense, not Future Tense
Futuro Anteriore to transport yourself into the future, and then describe an action as if you are describing it as something in the past, the "past" part of the description will be the future anterior tense. Used as main verb + prima di, di mattina, quando... , or to say "probably..." or "will have"

Examples: Simple Declarative Sentences: (verbo: Indicativo, tutti tempi)

someone(s)/something(s) is/are acting(subject(s) + verb) OR (verb + subject(s))
Irena va OR va Irena (andare)Irene goes (it doesn't matter what order it is said, means the same thing)
Lei va or Va lei (andare)She goes, substituting a personal pronoun for the name of the subject(personal noun)
Sarah e Rosario viaggano (andare)Sarah and Russ travel
Lei e lui viaggano (andare)She and he travel (substituting a personal pronouns for the names of the subjects(personal nouns)
Viene un treno (venire)A train came
L'autobus verra` (venire)The bus will come

Examples: Simple Declarative Sentences: (verbo: Indicativo, tutti tempi)

someone(s)/something(s) is/are acting upon something directlysubj. + verb + direct object (definite article + noun + adjective)
Luisa cucina il panforteLouise is making/makes a type of italian cake (panforte)
Marco vende i biscottiMark is selling/sells the cookies
Giovanna legge il libroJoan is reading/ reads the book
(loro) Comprano dei mobiliThey are buying some furniture (personal pronoun can be dropped, as verb indicates subject)

Examples: Simple Declarative Sentences: (verbo: Indicativo, tutti tempi)

someone(s)/something(s) is/are acting in regard to something indirectlysubj. + verb +preposition + indirect object
Luisa cucina con il fornoLouise is cooking/cooks with the oven (indirect object)
E` caldo, E` molto caldo, Non e` caldo.It is hot. It is very hot. It is not hot. (The subject (il forno).is understood)
Marco vende i biscotti a il sartoMark is selling/sells the cookies to the tailor
Lo compra i biscotti.He buys the cookies. (he> il sarto)
Giovanna legge in il libroJoan is reading/reads in the book