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Introduction to pharmacognosy

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allelipraise's version from 2017-09-23 10:41

Pharmacognosy

Question Answer
PharmacognosyThe science of biogenic or nature-derived pharmaceuticals and poison
Pharmakon"A drug"
Gignosco"To acquire a knowledge of"
PharmacognosyDeals with all medicinal plants, including those yielding complex mixtures/ it is closely related to botany and plant chemistry
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Pharmacognosist

Question Answer
Johann Adam Schmidtfirst one to coin the terms pharmacognosy and pharmacodynamics
Jonathan PereiraFirst teacher of pharmacognosy and gave it its pharmaceutical basis. Founder of British Pharmacognosist
Daniel HanburyMost outstanding applied pharmacognosist
E.M. HolmesApplied Pharmacognosist with standout researches
H.G. Greenish & T.E. WallisTransformed the old academic pharmacognosy by their contribution to the elimination of adulteration from powdered drugs.
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Popular Sources of Medicines

Question Answer
Leucojum AestivumSource of the drug: Galanthamine
Leucojum AestivumUsed for the treatment: Alzheimer's Disease
Taxus BrevifoliaSource of the drug: Taxol
Taxus Brevifolia(Taxol)Used as Anti-cancer drug
Hypericum PerforatumKnown as St. John's Wort
Hypericum PerforatumUsed in the treatment of Mild to Moderate Depression
Gingko BilobaUsed for cognitive deficiencies/Impairment of memory/affective symptoms/anxiety
Chamomilla RecuititaThe flowerheads of this plant used for mild gastro-intestinal and anti-inflammatory agent
Cassia spp. (Senna)The leaves and pods of this plant is used for constipation
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Natural Products or Compounds Isolated From Nature

Question Answer
MorphineFrom opium poppy (Papaver somniferum); Used as an Analgesic
Digoxin and other Digitalis glycosidesFrom Foxglove (Digitalis spp.); Used to treat heart failure
TaxolFrom the Pacific Yew (Taxus brevifolia); Used an an Anti-cancer treatment
AtropineFrom Belladona (Atropa Belladona); Used for Asthma
CaffeineFrom Coffee shrub (Coffea arabica) and (C.Canephora)
ConiieA highly poisonous natural product first isolated from hemlock (Conium maculatum)
EmetineFrom Ipecacuanha (Cephaelis ipecacuanha); Used as an emetic and cough medication
StrychnineFrom (Strychnos spp); Used as Tonic and stimulant
QuinineFrom Cinchona Bark (Cinchona spp.); Used in the treatment of malaria
GalanthamineFrom (Galanthus and Lreucojum spp.); Used in the management of cognitive disorders
Nutraceuticals/Functional Foodsa food containing health-giving additives and having medicinal benefit.
Anthocyanin/ Flavonoid-Containing plantsBilberries, Coca and Red Wine
Carotenoid-Containing PlantsTomatoes, Carrots, Vegetable
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Section 5

Question Answer
Pedanius DioscoridesGreek scholar from Anarzabos who described more than 600 medicinal plants
HippocratesA greek medical doctor from the island of Kos. He produced Corpus Hippocraticum. A collection of works on medical practice. He is also considered as father of medicine
Claudius GalenSummarized the complex body of graeco-roman pharmacy and medicine
Pliny the elderThe first to produce a cosmography, a detailed account of natural history, which included cosmology, mineralogy, botany, zoology and medicinal product derived from plants and animals
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Records

Question Answer
Shen Nong Ben CaojingDrug Treatise of the divine Countryman
Shen Nong Ben CaojingMOST IMPORTANT WORK ON MEDICINAL PLANTS IN THE CHINESE TRADITION
Ben Cao Gang MuContains information about 1892 drugs(in 52 chapters)
AyurvedaMost ancient of all medicinal traditions believed to originate from rigveda and thravaveda
Qanun Fi'l TibbCanon of medicine
Qanun Fi'l Tibb (Canon of medicine)A five volume book written by ibn sinna or avicenna from afshana
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Section 7

Question Answer
Crude drugs from the following sourcesPlants/Animals/Minerals
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