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Intro to PHARMACOGNOSY

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allelipraise's version from 2017-09-03 19:43

Section 1

Question Answer
PHARMACOGNOSYTHE SCIENCE OF BIOGENIC OR NATURE-DERIVED PHARMACEUTICALS AND POISONS
PHARMAKONA DRUG
GIGNOSCO TO ACQUIRE A KNOWLEDGE OF › THE SCIENCE OF BIOGENIC OR NATURE-DERIVED PHARMACEUTICALS AND POISONS
PHYTOTHERAPY DEALS WITH ALL MEDICINAL PLANTS, INCLUDING THOSE YIELDING COMPLEX MIXTURES, WHICH ARE USED IN THE FORM OF CRUDE HERBS OR EXTRACTS
NUTRACEUTICALSPURE COMPOUNDS SUCH AS MORPHINE, AND FOODS HAVING ADDITIONAL HEALTH BENEFITS ONLY IN THE CONTEXT OF HAVING PREVENTIVE EFFECTS
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Section 2

Question Answer
CultivationProduces improved quality of plants
Advantages of cultivationensures quality and purity of medicinal plants
Advantages of cultivationcollection of crude from cultivated plants gives a better yield and therapeutic quality
Advantages of cultivationcultivation ensures regular supply of a crude drug
Advantages of cultivationthe cultivation of medicinal and aromatic plants also leads industrialization to a greater extent
Advantages of cultivationCultivation permits application of modern technological aspects such as mutation, polyploidy, and hybridization
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Section 3

Question Answer
SoilShould contain Physical/chemical and microbiological properties of the soil play a crucial role in the growth of plant
Soil(Physical)include water holding capacity
Soil(Chemical)calcium content in soil
Soil(Microbiological)plays a crucial growth of plant
SeedUsed for cultivation should be identified botanically, showing the detials of its species, chemotype and origin
SeedShould be 100% traceable and be given resistant or tolerant species
Propagation materialThe parent material should meet standards requirements regarding the purity and germination and it should be free from pest and disease in order to guarantee healthy plant growth
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Section 4

Question Answer
Methods of plant propagation(sexual method)Seed propagation
Seedlingsplants raised from seeds
Rolled towel test/Exised embryo testGermination test
ScarcificationPreconditioning of seeds to make them permeable to water and gases
Gibberelins/cytokinins /ethyleneStimulants for germination
Gibbereilic acid (GA3)promotes germination of some type domant seeds and stimulates the seedling growth
ThioureaUsed for those seeds which do not germinate in dark or at a high temp.
long-lived seedlings/cheaperAdvantages of sexual method
not uniform in their growth and yielding capacity/ more time to near Disadvantages of sexual method
Methods of plant propagation(Asexual method)Vegetative part of a plant, is placed in such an environment that it develops into a new plant
Methods of plant propagation(Artificial method)the method by which plantlets or seedling are produced from vegetative part of the plant by using technique or process
(Artificial method)-cuttingstem/root/leaf cuttings; lead bud cuttings
(Artificial method)-layeringsimple/serpentine/air/mount/trench/tip layering
(Artificial method)-graftingwhip/tough/side/approach/stone grafting
Aseptic method of micropropagation (tissue-culture)novel method for propagation of medicinal plants
Aseptic method of micropropagation (tissue-culture)the plants are developed in an artificial medium under aseptic conditions from fine pieces of plants life single cells , callus, seeds, embryos, root trips, shoot tips, pollen grains.
Nursery bedsflat bed method
Nursery bedsraised bed method
Nursery bedsridges and furrow method
Nursery bedsring and basin method
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Section 5

Question Answer
Methods of Sowing the seeds (Broadcasting)Used if seeds are extremely small/need raking/scattered freely
Methods of Sowing the seeds (Dibbling)seeds of average size and weight are available
Irrigation(water)Essential for any type of cultivation.
Methods of irrigation(hand watering)economical and easy to operate
Methods of irrigation(flood watering)Easy to operate, results in wastage of water
Methods of irrigation(boom watering)Easy to operate but restricted to utility
Methods of irrigation(Drip irrigation)Scientific, systematic and easy to operate but costly
Methods of irrigation(sprinkler irrigation)Costly but gives good result
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Section 6

Question Answer
Good Agricultural Practices(soil)should not be contaminated by sludges/heavy metal/unnatural chemicals/human feces
Good Agricultural Practices(fertilizer)nutritional requirement of plant type of fertilizer should be determined
Good Agricultural Practices(pesticides)European union should confirm for products for chemical plant protection
Good Agricultural Practices(irrigation)proper irrigation and drainage should be earned out according to the climatic condition and soil moisture
Good Agricultural Practices(management)area for cultivation should be strictly prohibited from contaminations
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Section 7

Question Answer
Factors affecting cultivation(Altitude)Locations of the area depending on meters
Factors affecting cultivation(Temperature)Depending on the location and season
Factors affecting cultivation(Rainfall)Effects to be considered depending on the type of plany
Xerophytic plantsDo not require irrigation or rainfal
Day length and day lightplants depending on conditions should contain less or more amount of constituents
SoilShould have phy/chem/MO and healthy soil
Soil fertilitythe capacity of soil to provide nutrients in adequate amounts and in balanced proportions to plants
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Section 8

Question Answer
Armillaria Root rotOat root fugus
Armillaria Root rotcauses by fungi armillaria mellea
Armillaria Root rotthe infected plant becomes nonproductive and very frequently dies within 2-4 yrs
Powdery mildewcaused by fungi Uncinula necato
Powdery mildewappears as chloritic spots appear on the upper surface of leaf
Summer bunch rootA disease in which masses of black, brown, or green spores develop on the surface of infected berries causes by a variety of microbes like (Aspergillus niger/rhizopus arrhizus/penicillium sp.)
Leaf spotCaused by septoria digitalis
Crown gall disease cause by agrobacterium tumefaciens
pierce's diseasecaused by xylella fastidiosa
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Section 9

Question Answer
twig borerMelalgus confertus
oak twi prunersanelaphiis spp. linsley
click beetlelimonius canus(feed on buds)
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Section 10

Question Answer
weedsreduce the growth and yields plants by competing for water/nutrients/sunlight
weed controlenhances the establishment of new plants
control techniques Use of herbicides
CollectionsThe most important step which comes after cultivation
barksCollected during spring seasons
Collection of barks(Felling)bark is peeled of after cutting the tree at base
Collection of barks(uprooting)The underground roots are dug out the barks are collected from the branches and roots)
Collection of barks(Coppicing)Plants is cut one meter above the ground level and barks are removed
dryingconsist of removal of sufficient moisture of content of crude drug to improve its quality and make it resisntant to the grown of MO
Types of drying (natural)sun-drying
Types of drying (natural)direct sunlight or in shed
Types of drying (artificial)Maybe with the used of oven/dyers
Garbling/DressingProcess is desired when sand/dirt/ foreign organic parts of the same plant, not constituting drug are required to be removed
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Section 11