Intro to MDI

gupevele's version from 2015-11-17 17:01

acronyms :

Question Answer
BEBarium Enema
BIDTwice a day
CSFCerebral spinal fluid
CTComputed tomography
CXRChest X-ray
DOBDate of birth
HIPAAHealth Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
IVPIntravenous pyelogram
KUBKidney ureters an bladder
LMPLast menstrual period
MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging
OROperating room
R/ORule out
SOBShort of breath
STATImmediately, urgent
UGIUpper Gastrointestinal
URIUpper Respiratory Infection
ARRTAmerican Registry of Radiologic Technologists
ASRTAmerican Society of Radiologic Technologist
JRCERTJoint Review Committee on Education of Radiologic Technology
ARDMSAmerican Registry of Diagnostic Medical Sonography
RDMSRegistered in Diagnostic Medical Sonography
RTRegistered Technologist
AnodePositive side of X-ray tube
CathodeNegative side of X-ray tube
Cassette Holds film
BuckyHolds the cassette
Collimator Restricts the X-ray beam
CRComputed Radiography
FilmGoes inside cassette
GridsImproves image quality (used for larger body parts)
IRImage receptor (captures image)
Lead ApronProtective vest

patient positions

Question Answer
Legs above headTrendelenburg
Head above legsFowler's
Standing straight up with either side touching surfaceLateral Erect
Laying down with either side touching surfaceRecumbent Lateral
laying on back with legs elevated in stirrupsLithotomy
Laying in Recumbent Lateral with knee tucked inSim's
What is the opposite of Anterior Oblique?Posterior Oblique
When the Radius and Ulna are parallel, that is known asSupination
Radius rotates over Ulna, is known as what?Pronation
Circular movement of a limb or eye is known asCircumduction
Moving a limb towards the bodyAdduction
Moving a limb away from the bodyAbduction
Rotating a limb towards the bodyMedial Rotation
Rotating a limb away from the bodyLateral Rotation
What are the two types of skeletons?Axial (cranium,spine and ribs) Appendicular (appendages)
What are 2 ways to express the "front of the patient"Anterior and Ventral
What are the 2 ways to express the rear of the patientPosterior and Dorsal

Chapter 8 Imaging Equipment

Question Answer
What are the primary items needed for the production of x-rays?1. a source of electrons 2. a means to accelerate the electrons 3. a way to bring the electrons to sudden stop
What is the x-ray tube?an evacuated glass bulb with positive (anode) and negative (cathode) electrodes
What is the anode's role in the x-ray tube?an electrode in toward which negatively charged electrons migrate
What is the cathode's INSIDE THE X-RAY TUBE?a filament that gives off electrons when heated (the source of electrons)
During the conversion of energy inside the x-ray tube, what are the percentages of Heat and X-rays?99% heat and 1% x-ray
Where do the x-rays exit the tube housing?Through a device consisting of open lead shutter called a collimator
The electrons strike the ____?Anode

Patient Preparation

Question Answer
Checks for unwanted objects should be ______,______,and_____?Verbal, Visual, and Tactile

Film Screen Imaging

Question Answer
What are the materials used in Film screen Radiology?A cassette containing an Intensifying Screen and an X-ray Film in between the screens
What is an Intensifying Screen?A sheet of plastic that is embedded with crystals called Phosphors
What is an X-Ray filma sheet of polyester plastic that is coated with a thin layer of gelatin and silver compounds
In Film Screen Imaging,____% of the image on film is made by Light; only ___% of the image is made directly by the X-Rays95% and 5%
What exposes the X-Ray film inside the cassette?The visible light from the phosphors that are struck by the radiation exposes the film
How is the image of the X-ray film made visible?By developing the film (using developer)
What is an example of when Single emulsion X-ray film would be used?During a Mammagraphy exam
Is the finished radiograph considered a legal document?Yes
What allows the image to stay on the film?Fixer
What is the Film Screen Receptor (X-Ray Film) consist of?Polyester Plastic Base and an Emulsion made of Silver Bromide Crystals
During the process of being developed, what color do the Silver Bromide Crystals struck by the X-rays turn?Black
What are the three things used when developing an X-Ray Film?Developer, Fixer, and Water

Digital Imaging

Question Answer
What are some advantages of Digital Imaging?The ability to Post Process, Storage and Sharing, the ability to add markers or description of the image
What are the two types of Digital Imaging used today?Computed Radiography (CR) and Direct Radiography (DR)
What is the process of taking an image in CR?X-Rays strike a cassette containing an Imaging Plate that is coated with Photostimulable Phosphor, this traps high energy from the photons until the cassette is placed in the reader
What happens to the Imaging Plate once it is placed inside the CR reader?The IP is scanned with a laser beam, Energy from the photons is is digitized into a visible image
What are the differences between CR and DR?DR uses a Fixed Detector (IP is eliminated) The Detector communicates directly to a computer (no CR scanner needed)
Is the IP in CR reusable?Yes
What does PACS stand for?Picture Archiving and Communication System
What does DR stand for?Direct Digital Radiography
What does CR stand for?Computed Radiography
What is DICOM?The Language the computer reads images in
What does DICOM stand for?Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine


Question Answer
What is Fluoroscopy?A live action image that can be viewed on a monitor
In fluoroscopy, where is the X-Ray generated from (The X-ray tube is also in the same place)?From Underneath the patient, in the X-Ray table
What is an Image Intensifier?A device that brightens, and transfers the image to the monitor
Why is an Image Intensifier necessary?Because the image is initially dim

Radiographic Examinations

Question Answer
What are the two important components of most radiographic examinations?Patient Preparation and Contrast Media
What are the two types of Patient Preparation?External and Internal
External preparation is the responsibility of the _____?Radiographer
What does internal preparation help prevent?Obstruction of the abdomen by gas and fecal matter
What method helps prepare the bowels for examination?Cleansing Enema
What is Contrast Media?Solution or Gases introduced into the body to provide contrast on a radiograph between organs and surrounding tissue
What are the 3 types of contrast media used in radiography?1. Iodine-based media 2. Barium-based media 3. Air
What is the difference between Barium and Iodine?Barium is inert and cannot be absorbed by the body
What is the Contrast Media of choice for gastrointestinal studiesBarium
What kind of Contrast Media would you use if surgery appears imminent or if a perforated stomach or intestine is suspected?A water soluble Iodine Contrast Agent
In case of a perforated stomach or intestine, why would Barium not be used?Because it is not readily absorbed by the body and any spillage would result in a failed examination
During what examination is Air primarily used?Chest Radiography
When two types of Contrast media are it is known as?Double Contrast
What examinations use two types of contrast media?Air-contrast colon studies and arthrogram
Name some examples of exams that use Barium?BE, UGI, and SBS
How do do they introduce Iodine into the body?Injection or Ingestion
Before injecting Iodine, what must the radiographer check for?Alergic Reactions
Do Barium and Iodine have the same contrast qualities?Yes

Radiographic Examinations

Question Answer
What are Radiographic studies?Examinations done by the Radiographer on particular regions of the body with the use of the X-Ray Tube
What is the most common radiographed region of the body?The Thoracic Cavity
What are the different Radiographic studies?Skull, Thoracic Cavity, Extremities, Spine, and Abdomen
What does the Thoracic Cavity include?All the bones and tissues of the chest region
Name three examples of abnormalities evaluated by a Thoracic Cavity Exam?Enlarged Heart, Tumor, Collapsed Lung
What do extremities Exams study?The upper and lower extremities; including the shoulder and pelvic region
Bone studies require AT LEAST how many views and at what angle from each other?At least 2 views that are taken at right angles from each other
What is the Scoliosis series?Entire Spine
What do spine exams usually study for?Arthritis of the spine, abnormal curvatures, muscle spasms that may be causing curvature, and slipped vertabrae

Fluoroscopic studies

Question Answer
What are fluoroscopic studies?A "live" viewing of a part of the body
What are the different types of Fluoroscopic examinations?Esophagram, SBS, Upper GI series, Barium Enema, Urinary System Studies, and Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography
What kind of contrast media Does an Esophagram use?Barium Sulfate
What are we looking for during an Esophagram?tumors, constriction, and spasms
What contrast media is used during an Upper GI Series exam?Barium Sulfate
During the UGI exam, how often is the abdomen radiographed?Every hour
What is SBS used to examine?(small bowels) Tumors, inflammation, obstructions, and malabsorption of nutrients.
Although BE aren't painful, what might they cause for the patient?Discomfort and cramping or peristalsis (radiographer must work fast and accurately)
What is often used in air-contrast studies of the colon to reduce cramping and peristalsis?Glucagon
What abnormalities are being looked for in a Barium Enema study?tumors, bowel obstructions, diverticula, and inflammation
What is replacing the BE?Virtual colonoscopy,(a CT procedure)

Urinary System Studies/ERCP (fluoroscopic study cont.)

Question Answer
What kind of contrast media does a Urinary System study use?Iodine
In an IVP, how is Iodine introduced to the bloodstream?The iodinated contrast agent is injected into the bloodstream through a VEIN in the arm
What is another name for IVP?excretory urography
What is a Cystogram?study of the Urinary Bladder
What is a Voiding Cystourethrogram? VCUGAn observation of the emptying of the bladder while under fuoroscopic observation
What is ERCP stand for?Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography
What does the ERCP study?Anomalies in the Biliary System or Pancreas
Where is the Contrast Media injected during an ERCP?The Common Bile Duct
During an ERCP, is the patient sedated?Yes
What path does the scope take in an ERCP?Scope passes through the Esophagus, stomach, and Duodenum
Is an IVP functional or non functional?Functional
Is a VCUG functional or non functional? Functional
Is a Cystogram functional or non functional?Non functional

Special Radiographic Procedures

Question Answer
What is an Arteriogram?A study of the particular ARTERIES of a particular region
What kind of Contrast Media is used in an Arteriogram?Iodine based contrast media
How is the Contrast Media introduced to the patient in an Arteriogram?It is injected
What is an Arthrogram?A study that evaluates the structures in and around a joint
What kind of contrast media does an Arthrogram use?Iodine based
How is Contrast Media introduced to the patient in an Arthrogram?Injected directly into the joint space
What is a Hysterosalpingogram?An examination of the uterus and fallopian tubes
What is Lithotripsy?Shock waves are used to destroy stones in the kidney and ureter
Does breast tissue have high contrast or low contrast?Low contrast
What is a Sialogram?a study of the salivary glands after they have been injected with contrast media
What is a Venogram?a study used to evaluate the veins

Chapter 10

Question Answer
What is Latent Image?(Invisible) Image on the Image Receptor prior to developing or electronic processing
What is Manifest Image?(Visible) Image that appears after an image has been developed or electronically processed
In Digital Radiography, the image is made in ____ unitsDiscrete
In Analog or Film Imaging, the image is composed of ______ unitsContinuous
What are the 3 types of Image Receptors?Conventional Film Screen, Photo Sensitive Phosphor Plate (CR) , or a Charged Electronic Device (DR)
In what technique(s) do X-Rays excite phosphors?CR or (Indirect DR)
In what techniques(s) are the plates read by laser light and converted to an electrical signal?CR or (Indirect DR)
In what technique(s) do the plates not contain phosphors?Direct DR
What are the advantages of Digital Radiography?Reduced waiting time, Image Manipulation, Minimal Fog, Increased Image Contrast, No film storage
What are the advantages of Film Screen Radiography?Gold Standard, No loss of information (continuous)
The Latent image in ____ is held on a Phosphor Plate?CR
The Latent image in DR is held on an _____?Electronic Device
What is another name for CR?Indirect DR
In Direct DR, x-rays interact directly with _____, creating an _____?Element Selenium, Electric Charge
Direct DR does not require a ______ like Indirect DR doesLight-Emmitting Phosphor
Which Latent image needs to be scanned, Direct DR or Indirect DR?Indirect

Technical Factors that affect the image

Question Answer
What are the three technical factors?Time, Voltage (KV), Amperage (mA)
What does mA determine?The number of X-ray photons produced per unit of time
What does the kV determine?Force, power or energy behind the X-Ray beam
What does time determine?Time radiation is active
Volage, Amperage, and Time control what?The amount and quality of radiation generated by the machine
Does a higher kV result in more or less penetration?More
Does a Lower kV result in more or less penetration?Less
What is Image Contrast?Shades of grey
What Controls Image Contrast?kV
What Controls Density?mA
Does a high contrast have a lot of shades of grey or a few?Few shades of Grey
Does a low contrast have a lot of shades of grey or a few?Many shades of Grey