Intro to Clin Med Quiz 1 2017

moonlup's version from 2017-01-22 15:56

Section 1

Question Answer
DAMNITVDegenerative/Developmental, Anomalous/Allergic, Metabolic, Neoplastic/Nutritional, Infectious/Inflammatory/Immune Mediated/Idiopathic/Ischemic/Iatrogenic, Trauma/Toxic, Vascular
POMRProblem Orientated Medical Record
Causes of Decreased PCVAnemia (Regenerative or Nonregenerative)
Causes of Regenerative AnemiaHemolysis, Blood Loss
Causes of Nonregenerative AnemiaInflammatory, Renal Dz, Bone Marrow Dz
Causes of Increased PCVPolycythemia (Relative or Absolute)
Causes of Elevated Total SolidsDehydration, Chronic Infections, Leukemia
Causes of Decreased Total SolidsPoor nutrition, Liver Dz, Malabsorption, Diarrhea, PLN/PLE, burns
Elevated PCV and Total SolidsDehydration or Relative Polycythemia
Elevated TS w/ low/normal PCVDehydration masking severe anemia
What is Hematocrit?MCV x RBC /10, bit more sensitive than PCV
How can you estimate PCV from Hgb?Hgb x3
What's a physiologic leukocytosis?Neutrophilia and lymphocytosis
What's a stress leukogram?Mature neutrophilia, Monocytosis, Lymphopenia
What's an inflammatory leukogram?>1000 Bands
What's Leukemia?>50000 WBCs
What's Extreme neutrophilic leukocytosis caused by?pyometra, ehrlichia, hepatozoanosis, fungus
Causes of elevations in Mature NeutrophilsInflammation, Infection, Immune Mediated Disease, Stress, Fear, Neoplasia
Causes of decreases in Mature NeutrophilsOverwhelming Infection/Inflammation, Destruction, Neoplasia, Bone Marrow issue, Cyclic hematopoiesis
What's a degenerative left shift?Elevated band cells but leukopenia
Causes of LymphocytosisChronic inflammation, neoplasia, catecholamines, HYPOadrenocorticism
Causes of LymphopeniaSteroids, acute inflammation, effusions, lymphoid hypoplasia/aplasia
What's a macrophage?Monocyte that has migrated into tissues
Causes of MonocytosisChronic inflammation, necrosis, steroids, neoplasia
Causes of MonopeniaNot a diagnostic issue (trick question)
Causes of EosinophiliaAllergies, Parasites, eosinophilic disease, Mast cell neoplasia, HYPOadrenocorticism, neoplasia
Causes of EosinopeniaSteroids, acute inflammation, Bone Marrow Dz
Formula for Corrected Reticulocyte PercentRetic% x (PCV/normal PCV) = CRP
What is RDW?population spread of RBCs, wide indicates regen
Macrocyte caused byRegen, poodles
Microcyte caused byIron deficiency, PSS
Hypochromia caused byBlood loss, Hemolysis, Iron deficiency
Hyperchromia caused bydoesn't happen
Review Volume/Hgb cytogramSlide 58
Thrombocytopenia caused byIncreased use/destruction, Decreased production, Sequestration
Thrombocytosis caused byPrimary (rare), HAC
What causes Heinz bodies?Oxydative damage, Denatured Hgb, Onions, Tylenol

Section 2

Question Answer
Total Protein ElevationsDehydration, Chronic Infections, Leukemia
Total Protein DecreasesPoor nutrition, Liver Dz, Malabsorption, Diarrhea, PLN/PLE, burns
The four things on a Chemistry that tell you about liver functionCholesterol, BUN, Albumin, Glucose
Hyperalbuminemia caused byDehydration
Hypoalbuminemia caused byPoor diet, Diarrhea/PLE, fever, Infection, Liver Dz, Burns, Vasculitis, Glomerulopathy/PLN
What is AST?mitochondrial enzyme, cellular damage marker
Elevated AST caused byLiver damage, Kidney infection, Myocardial infarction, Muscle damage (dogs don't worry till x2-3)
What is ALT?Hepatocyte cytoplasmic enzyme
What is Alk Phos?Indicator of cholestasis, membrane bound to bile canicular surface (dogs don't worry till <4x, elevated w/ steroids)
What is GGT?Membrane bound Bile Duct Epithelium
Clarify Elevated BilirubinPre-hepatic, Hepatic, Post-hepatic
Causes of elevated BUNHigh protein intake/GI bleed, Renal Dz, Dehydration, Exercise
Causes of Decreased BUNPoor diet, Malabsorption, Liver Dz, Diuresis
Causes of Elevated CreatinineRenal Dz, Muscle Degen/Damage, Drugs, Dehydration, Greyhounds
What is Azotemia?Elevation in BUN or Creatinine, Prerenal, renal, or Post renal, MUST evaluate with USG
Causes of HyperglycemiaDiabetes mellitus, Pancreatitis, HYPERadrenocorticism, Steroids, HYPOthyroidism, Postprandial, Stress
Causes of HypoglycemiaLiver Dz, Chronic Infections, Sepsis, Pyometra, Insulinoma, Hepatomas, Certain other tumors
What Calcium test do we care about?Ionized
Hypocalcemia Clinical SignsExcitability, Nervous, Behavior change, Facial itchiness, muscle cramping, stiff gait, tetany, seizures
Hypercalcemia Clinical SignsNeuron and muscle cell inhibition, Tissue mineralization, Weakness, Vomiting, Constipation
How does the endocrine system control itself?Negative feedback
Causes of Hypercalcemia (GOSHDARNIT) Granulomatous Dz, Osteopathy/lytic Dz, Spurious, HyPERparathyroidism, Hypervitaminosis D, Addisons (hypo), Renal Dz, Neoplasia, Idiopathic (cats), Temp (cats)
Causes of Hypocalcemia(HERPES) HyPOparathyroidism, Eclampsia, Renal Dz, Pancreatitis/Phos, Ethylene Glycol, Spurious
Look at the Ca/PTH graphSlide 87