Intro To Chem Studying

mathewsgirl's version from 2017-05-08 18:39

Section 1

Question Answer
AtomMost basic unit of matter. Made of 3 subatomic parts
Subatomic PartsProton, Neutron, Electron.
ProtonMass=1, Charge=+, Location=Nucleus
NeutronMass=1, Charge=0, Location=Nucleus
ElectronMass=0, Charge=-, Location=obit around the Nucleus
Atomic NumberThe amount of protons within an atoms nucleus
ElementA group of atoms with the same atomic number
Atomic MassProtons+Neutrons
IsotopeAn atom of the same element but with a different mass
Average Atomic MassAverage mass of ALL an elements Isotope
Valence ElectronsElectrons located in the outer most energy level

Section 2

Question Answer
Electron Cloudwhere electrons are when they go around the nucleus of an atom
Group/ Familythe rows on a periodic Table
DuctileAbility to be drawn into wire
MalleableAbility to be hammered or rolled into sheets
Corrosiveeasy to explode or can take away skin and bone
Electrolyteliquid or gel that contains ions and can be decomposed by electrolysis
Indicatorit detects the presence of H+ and OH- they react with H+ and OH-, colors change
Hydroxide IonOH-
Hydrogen IonH+
Hydronium IonH3O+
Lab SafteyGoogles and dont touch or smell without permision
Neutralization Reactionswhen an acid and a base react to form water and a salt and involves the combination of H+ ions and OH- ions to generate water.

Section 3

Question Answer
Instantaneous SpeedWhen the speed of an object is constantly changing
Average Speedf an object is defined as the distance traveled divided by the time elapsed.
Constant SpeedWhen the speed of an object remains the same - it does not increase or decrease
Speedbeing a scalar quantity, is the rate at which an object covers distance.
Displacementa vector quantity that refers to "how far out of place an object is"; it is the object's overall change in position.
Distancea scalar quantity that refers to "how much ground an object has covered" during its motion.
Velocitya physical vector quantity; both magnitude and direction are needed to define it.
Accelerationis the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time.
Forcecan cause an object with mass to change its velocity
Gravityis the natural force that causes things to fall toward the earth
Frictionis a catchall word that refers to any force that resists relative tangential motion
Newton's LawThe laws are: (1) Every object moves in a straight line unless acted upon by a force. (2) The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force exerted and inversely proportional to the object's mass. (3) For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

Section 4

Question Answer
Group 1one valence electrons
Group 22 valence electrons
Group 133 valence electrons
Group 144 valence electrons
Group 155 valence electrons
Group 166 valence electrons
Group 177 valence electrons
Group 188 valence electrons

Section 5

Question Answer
Newton's First law of MotionEvery object moves in a straight line unless acted upon by a force.
Newton's Second Law of MotionThe acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force exerted and inversely proportional to the object's mass.
Newton's Third Law of MotionFor every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Projectileis any object that once projected or dropped continues in motion by its own inertia and is influenced only by the downward force of gravity.
Circular Motionis a movement of an object along the circumference of a circle or rotation along a circular path
Momentumthe property or tendency of a moving object to continue moving. For an object moving in a line
Law of Conservation of Momentumstating that the total linear momentum of a closed system remains constant through time, regardless of other possible changes within the system.
Energythe capacity for doing work.
Kinetic Energyof an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion. It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its stated velocity.
Potential Energyis the energy that is stored in an object due to its position relative to some zero position.
Law of Conservation of Energystates that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant—it is said to be conserved over time
Metric systemthe decimal measuring system based on the meter, liter, and gram as units of length, capacity, and weight or mass.

Section 6

Question Answer
Groups of the Periodic TableMetals, Alkali Metals, Alkaline Earth Metals, Transition Metals, Non-Metals, Halogens, Noble Gases, Metalloids
Metals1-3 Valence electrons. Tend to give electrons away.
Alkali MetalsLithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, francium. 1 Valence Electrons. Give electrons away.
Alkaline Earth MetalsBeryllium, Magnesium, Calcium, Strontium, Barium, Radium. 2 Valence Electrons. Gives Electrons away.
Transition MetalsGroups 3-12. 1-2 Valence Electrons. Happy how they are.
Non-Metals4-8 Valence Electrons. Attracts Electrons
HalogensFlourine, Chlorine Bromine, Iodine, Astatine.7 Valence Electrons. Want 1 or more Electrons
Nobel GasesHelium, Neon, Argon, Krypton Xenon, Radon. 8 Valence Electrons (helium has 2). FULL outer Energy Level
MetalloidsBoron, Silicon Gemanium, Germanium Arsenic, Antimony, Tellurium, Polonium. Varies on Vertical group they are in.

Section 7

Question Answer
Ionic BondsA bond that forms between two Ions. Between a Metal and Nonmetal.
Covalent BondsA bond formed by the sharing of Valence electrons. Nonmetals and Nonmetals
Chemical BondA force that holds 2 or more atoms together
Compound2 or more Elements bonded together
Molecule2 or more Atoms bonded together
Polar BondsUneven sharing of valence electrons. Will have a charge
Non-Polar BondsEven sharing of valence electrons. No charge.
ExothermicGive off heat + energy. Feels hot/warm.
EndothermicTake in heat or energy. Feel cold.
CatalystSpeeds up the chemical reaction. Does NOT change the end product.
Indicators Will STOP the reaction from occurring.

Section 8

Question Answer
Meterthe fundamental unit of length in the metric system
Litera metric unit of capacity, formerly defined as the volume
Grama metric unit of mass equal to one thousandth of a kilogram.
Steps of the Scientific Methodthe problem or issue you wish to resolve. ... Construct a hypothesis to determine how you think your questions should be answered. Test your hypothesis by conducting an experiment. Analyze the data you have collected during the experiment.
Qualitativerelating to, measuring, or measured by the quality of something rather than its quantity.
Quantitativerelating to, measuring, or measured by the quantity of something rather than its qualit
Lawis a statement about an observed phenomenon or a unifying concept
Theoryis a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment.
ControlStatistics. a person, group, event, etc., that is used as a constant and unchanging standard of comparison in scientific experimentation.
Independent Variablevariable is the one that is changed by the scientist.

Section 9

Question Answer
Massthe property of matter that measures its resistance to acceleration.
VolumeThe amount of space occupied by a three-dimensional object or region of space
Densityis a measure of mass per volume
Dependent Variableis the variable being tested in a scientific experiment.

Section 10

Question Answer
Synthesis2 or more parts come together to form a compound
DecompositionA compound brakes down into 2 or more parts
Single ReplacementOne part moves in and replaces encounter within a compound
Double Replacement2 different compounds exchange parts with eachother
CombustionExothermic reaction that involves something reacting with O2.
AcidpH 0-6.99. Produce H* ions. Sour Taste. Corrosive. Electrolytes (conduct electricity)
NeutralpH 7
BasepH 7.1-14. Produce OH- Ions (Hydroxide). Slippery. Electrolytes. Bitter Taste.
StrengthBased on how well Acid/Base ionizes.
ConcentrationRefers to how much H3O+ or OH- are within a solution. Measured on the pH scale
Typical Rain5.6 to 6 pH
Acid Rain5.6 or lower pH
Neutralization ReactionsA chemical reaction between on Acid and Base. Acid + Base --> Water + Salt

Section 11

Question Answer
Pressure Amount of force over a given area
Boyle's LawTemperature stays constant. When volume goes up pressure goes down. When volume goes down pressure goes up.
Charles' LawPressure stays constant. When temperature goes down volume goes down. When temperature goes up volume goes up.
Gay-Lussac's LawVolume stays constant. When temperature goes up pressure goes up. When temperature goes down pressure goes down.
P=Pressure (Pa)
F=Force (N)
A=Area (m2)
Atmosperic pressure is 101.3 kPa @ sea level
Equations...P=F/A, 1Pa=1N/1m2, 1kPa=1000N/1m2, 101.3kPa=101,300N/1m2
Ideal Gaswill occupy a space and NOT react with anything
Ideal Gas Law equationPV=nRT


Question Answer
number of moles(amount of matter)
Ideal gas constant8.31
Bernoulli's PrincipleAs a fluid's velocity increases the pressure will decrease
Magnus EffectSpining objects that follow Bernoulli's prinicple
DiffusionAtoms will move from areas of high concentration to low concetration
EquilibriumAll gas particles are equally spread out.
Concentration GradientDifference in concentration within a given area.


Question Answer
Osmosis Movement of H20 through a semi= preseable membrane
Soluteis whats dissolved
solutionEntire mixture
HypotonicLow % of solute
HypertonicHigher % of solute
IsotonicSame %
BuoyancyThe ability of a fluid to exert an upward force on an object within it
Archimedes's PrincipleThe buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.
B.F. = WeightFloat
B.F. < WeightSink
B.F. > WeightRise