Intestinal disorders

tigrebright's version from 2015-10-19 15:06

Section 1

Question Answer
celiac diseaseaka gluten intolerance;inherited autoimmune disorder characterized by a severe reaction to food containing gluten;this disorder damages the villi of the small intestine and can lead to the failure of the body to absorb these substances properly
glutena class of proteins found in grains such as wheat, barley,rye and possible oats
colorectal carcinomaaka colon cancer; often first manifests itself in polyps in the colon
polypsa mushroom-like growth from the surface of the mucous membrane;not all are malignant
diverticulosisthe chronic presence of an abnormal number of diverticula in the colon; often has no symptoms
diverticuluma small pouch or sac, found in the lining or wall of a tubular organ such as the colon
diverticulitisinflammation or infection of one or more diverticulum in the colon;symptoms can include sudden abdominal pain, cramping and nausea
enteritisinflammation of the small intestine caused by eating or drinking substances contaminated with viral and bacterial pathogens
ischemic colitisoccurs when part of the large intestine is partially or completely deprived of blood;if it lasts for more than a day;it leads to inflammation or permanent damage to the affected area
ileusaka paralytic ileus;partial or complete blockage of the small or large intestine;caused by the stopping of the normal peristalsis of the area of the intestine; symptoms can included severe pain, cramping, abdominal distention, vomiting and the failure to pass gas or stools
postoperative ileustemporary impairment of bowel action; considered a normal response to abdominal surgery

Section 2

Question Answer
irritable bowel syndromeaka IBS or spastic colon;common condition of unknown cause with symptoms that can include intermittent cramping. abdominal pain, bloating, constipation and diarrhea; aggrevated by stress and eating certain foods; NOT caused by pathogens or structural changes
inflammatory bowel diseasegeneral name for diseases that cause inflammation and swelling in the intestines
flaresintervals of active disease
ulcerative colitischronic condition of unknown cause in which repeated episodes of inflammation in the rectum and large intestine cause ulcers and irritation'affect only the innermost lining and not the deep tissues of the colon
Chron's diseasechronic autoimmune disease that can occur anywhere in the digestive tract;it most often found in the ileum and the colon;penetrates every layer of tissue in the affected area, resulting in scarring and thickening of the affected structures
intestinal obstructionthe partial or complete blockage of the small or large intestine caused by a partial obstruction
intestinal adhesionsabnormally hold together parts of the intestine that should be separate; can lead to intestinal obstruction
strangulating obstructionthe blood flow to a segment of the intestine is blocked
volvulusthe twisting of the intestine on itself, causing an obstruction
intussusceptionthe telescoping of one part of the small intestine into the opening of an immediately adjacent part
inguinal herniathe protrusion of a small loop of bowel through a weak place in the lower abdominal wall or groin
strangulated herniaoccurs when a portion of the intestine is constricted inside the hernia, causing ischemia in this tissue by cutting off its blood supply
clostridium difficleaka C.Diff;a bacterial infection that causes diarrhea and can lead to inflammation of the colon
dysenterya bacterial infection occurs most frequently in hot countries where it is spread through food or water contaminated by human feces
E. colicaused by the bacterium Escherichia coli; transmitted through contaminated foods that have not cooked properly
salmonellosisaka salmonella;transmitted by feces, either by direct contact with animals or by eating contaminated raw or undercooked meats and eggs

Section 3

Question Answer
anal fissuresmall crack-like sore in the skin of the anus that can cause severe pain during a bowel movement
bowel incontinencethe inability to control the excretion of feces
constipationdefined as having a bowel movement fewer that three times per week
diarrheaabnormally frequent flow of loose or watery stools that can lead to dehydration
hemorrhoidsoccur when a cluster veins, muscles, and tissues slip near or through the anal opening
rectocelebulging of the front wall of the rectum into the vagina;usually the result of childbirth or pregnance
hematocheziathe flow of bright red blood in the stool; usually indicates the blood is coming from the lower part of the GI tract
melanathe passage of black, tarry and foul-smelling stools;caused by the presence of digested blood and often indicates an injury of disorder in the upper part of the GI tract
steatorrheathe presence of excess fat in the stools;results in frothy, foul-smelling feces and is usually caused by pancreatic disease, the removal of the gall bladder, or malabsorption disorder

Section 4

Question Answer
ascitesabnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity;usually the result of severe liver disease
seroussubstance having a watery consistency
hepatomegalyabnormal enlargement of the liver
jaundiceyellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes and the eyes;caused by a greater than normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood
hepatitisinflammation of the liver usually caused by a viral infection
HAVhep A;most prevalent;transmitted mainly through contamination of food and water can be vaccinated against hep A
HBVhep B;bloodborne; a vaccine is available
HCVhep C; bloodborne; can be present in the body for years with no symptoms; no vaccine available
cirrhosischronic degenerative disease of the liver characterized by scarring
nonalcoholic fatty live diseasedescribes the accumulation of fat in the liver of people who drink little or no alcohol
nonalcoholic steatohepatitisconsists of fatty accumulations plus liver-damaging inflammation

Section 5

Question Answer
cholangitisacute inflammation of the bile duct characterized by pain in the upper-right quadrant of the abdomen, fever, and jaundice
cholecystitisinflammation of the gall bladder, usually associated with gallstones blocking the flow of bile
gallstoneaka cholelith;a hard deposit formed in the gallbladder and bile ducts due to the concretion of bile components
cholelithiasisthe presence of gallstones in the gallbladder and bile ducts
bilary colicpain caused by the passage of a gallstone through a bile duct