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Integumentary System

puwewacu's version from 2018-03-28 17:20

Section 1

Question Answer
The integumentary system consists of...Skin and accesory organs (hair, nails & cuatenous glands)
Heaviest, largest, most vulnerable and receives most of the medical treatmentSkin
Protective chemical factorsSebum, sweat and melanin
Acidic oil that protects against bacterial colonisationSebum
Flushes bacteria off surfaceSweat
Pigment from melanocytes which prevents radiation from penetrating skin layersMelanin
Gets rid of urea and excessive saltExcretion
Body temperature regulationSweating, vasoconstriction and vasodilation that regulate heat loss
SensationNerve receptorsin dermis detect heat, cold, pain, touch.
Vitamin D synthesisUV activates chemical reaction in epidermis

Section 2

Question Answer
EpidermisKeratinised stratified squamous epithelium (first layer)
DermisDeeper connective tissue layer
HypodermisConnective tissue layer below dermis
Skin functionsResistance to trauma and infections, barrier (against water, radiation and chemicals),vitamin D synthesis, sensation, thermoregulation and nonverbal communication
Thick skinCovers front of hands and bottom from feet. Has sweat glands but no hair follicles or sebaceous glands
Thin skinCovers most of the body with hair follicles, sebaceous glands and sweat glands
Dead cells at skin surface have keratin, no blood vessels, nutrients diffuse from underlaying connective tissue and nerve endings for stimuliEpidermis

Section 3

Question Answer
Composed of collagen. Hair follicles and nail roots are born here.Dermis
Blood vessels, sweat gland, sebaceous glands and nerve endingsDermis
Papillary layerSuperficial zone where leukocytes move around
Reticular layerDeeper, thicker layer of irregular tissue where stretch marks occur
Rich in fat (energy reservoir, thermal insulation), binds skin to underlying tissue and has a lot of blood vesselsHypodermis
Accessory organs Hair and nails

Section 4

Question Answer
KeratinFibrous stuctural protein that is protective from damage and /or stress
Flexible soft keratinMostly found in the stratum of the skin
Compact hard keratinForms hair and nails. Linkages between molecules.
Hair AKA pili (covers most of the body)Slender filament of keratinised cells growing from a tube that lies within the skin= hair follicle
Hair functionsWarmth, alerts from parasites on the skin, protection against sunburn, sexual maturity and guard hairs
LanugoFine, unpigmented hair of fetus.
VellusFine, pale hair that replaces lanugo at birth.
TerminalCoarse, pigmented hair

Section 5

Question Answer
Composed of of thin, dead cells packed with hard keratin. Improve picking apart food and certain actions. Enhance sensivity of fingertips to small obkects/stimuli. AestheticNails
The cutaneous glands areSweat glands,sebaceous glands, ceruminous glands and mammary glands.
Sweat glandsHas apocrine and merocrine
ApocrineProduces sweat that is milky with fatty acids. Responds to stress nad sexual stimuli. Produces body odour whrn bacteria act on it.
MerocrineWatery perspiration that cools body. Found mostly on palms, soles and forehead.
Sebaceous glandsOil secretion called sebum that helps skin and hair not to dry.
Ceruminous glandsForm earwax or cerumen that makes canal waterproof and kills bacteria. Serves as protection along with guard hair.
Mammary glandsProduce milk and only develop during pregnancy/lactation.

Section 6

Question Answer
BurnsClassified according to depth of tissue involvement.
First degree burnInvolves epidermis, redness, slight oedema, pain and heals in days.
Second degree burnIncludes part of dermis, red, tan white, blistered and painful, 2 weeks to several moths to heal and may leave scars.
Third degree burnFull thickness burn, involves epidermis, all dermis and sometimes deeper tissue.Requires skin grafts. Needs fluid replacement, infection control.
AcneMost common disease, marked by pimples on face, chest and back.
Steps to produce a pimplePuberty increases androgens. Sebaceous glands secrete excessive sebum. Sebum in hair follicles. Combines with death skin cells which blocks follicle. Bacteria invades blocked follicle. Follicle burst open releasing and invading surrounding tissue. Pimple is formed.
Treatment such as... reduces sebum productionWashing and medications that are applied on skin or taken orally.