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Integumentary 1

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juniperk's version from 2018-03-04 21:41

Section

Question Answer
What is a macule?Non-palpable, flat lesion that has color and measures less than 1 cm (freckles)
What is a nodule?Elevated, firm lesions with circumscribed border that is 1-2 cm
What is a papule?Elevated, palpable mass, measuring less than 0.5cm (mole, insect bite, scabies)
What is plaque?Elevated group of papules that have grown into one lesion larger than 0.5 cm (psoriasis)
What is a pustule?Elevated serous filled vesicles that can measure any size (acne)
What is a vesicle?Fluid filled, elevated mass that measures less than 0.5 cm (blister, small burns, chicken pox, herpes) Bulla is over 0.5cm
What is atrophy?Dry, thin, skin that appears wasted from loss of collagen (hydration)
What are crusts?Dried pus or blood on skin surface from a ruptured vesicle (final stage of chicken pox or impetigo lesions)
What is a fissure?Linear break in the skin with sharp edges (athletes foot- encourage cool, dry, white color socks)
What are scales?Dry, dead skin that sloughs off skin surface (dandruff)
What are ulcers? Most common?Deep excavations in the skin. Most common is pressure ulcers
Pruritus may be the first indication of a systemic internal disease such what? 3. Also, may accompany what 3 diseases?diabetes, blood disorders, or cancer (occult malignancy of the breast or colon, lymphoma). It may also accompany kidney, hepatic, and thyroid diseases.
Pruritis- pharmacologic management?moisturize, antihistamines, and topical steroids
What is urticaria? What are 3 things that can cause it?hives. White or red. Histamine release in dermal tissue. Allergic reaction. Autoimmune diease, malignancies, & psychogenic responses
Atopic dermatitis is also known as what? Characterized by what?eczema. pruritus, erythema, and dry skin. In infants, red, crusted, scaly lesions may also be present. It is commonly first diagnosed before age 1 year. The exact cause is unknown, although it is associated with an impaired skin barrier that allows penetration of allergens, leading to an immune response.
What are the 6 therapeutic mgmt for eczema?1. Bathe or shower daily 2. Do not use bath additives 3. Pat skin dry 4. Eucerin or Lubriderm 5. No perfume or lotion 6. Antibacterial soaps
What is eczema? Where is it usually located on infants, children and on adults?an inflammatory reaction of the skin to physical, chemical, or biologic agents. Infants-cheeks, forehead, scalp, and legs. Children- dry scaly popular patches of skin- wrist ankles popliteal. Adults- Large, dry, thickened lesions- Face, upper arms hands, feet, fingers, toes
What is the pharm tx for eczema?antihistamines, topical steroids, and antibiotics if there is an infection
What is considered one of the most common chronic noncommunicable skin diseases? Characteristics?Psoriasis. appearance of silvery plaques that most commonly appear on the skin over the elbows, knees, scalp, lower back, and buttocks, although lesions may appear anywhere, including the oral cavity, eyes (including the lids, conjunctivae, and corneas), and joints
Psoriasis- Pharmacologic Therapy topical, phototherapy, and systemic- Topical steroids, antihistamines, direct light exposure to skin, emollients
What can exacerbate psoriasis?It is emphasized that repeated trauma to the skin and an unfavorable environment (e.g., cold) may exacerbate psoriasis. The patient is cautioned about taking any nonprescription medications because some may aggravate mild psoriasis.
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